The Industrial Revolution Adam, Ana, Chris, Emma, Will
Industrial Revolution in the 18th Century • It occurred in the 2nd half of the 18th Century. • It is defined as an achievement of sustained growth • Despite social costs, it led to the production of more goods and services than ever before. • Overall, it raised the standard of living and overcame some of the poverty of the age. • It was hardly considered a revolution at the time; it was revolutionary more in its implications for society than for its speed.
A Revolution in Consumption •Early Eighteenth Century new machinery increases the desire and possibility of consumer goods. •This leads to the production of humble goods: ex. (toys, buttons, china, furniture, kitchen utensils, etc.) •The demand for these goods sparked the ingenuity of designers and inventors, and entrepreneurs. (Reasons for this include English citizens having a disposable income due to the improvement of agriculture). •Josiah Wedgwood (1730-1795) first attempted to sell product to royal family and the aristocracy, he then produced less expensive version of products for middle class consumers.Other sales tactics include: (advertising, showrooms, salespeople, catalogs).
Industrial Leadership of Great Britain •Home to the industrial rev. up till about mid nineteenth century. •Some factors that contributed to the start include: consumer revolution, London being the largest city in Europe at the time, and having a sense for fashion and taste. •In addition to the people wanting an accumulation of goods, the British economy benefited from the colonies in North America. •Other benefitting factors include: 0 tolls on roadways and waterways, England being the largest free-trade area in Europe, rich deposits of coal and iron ore, a stable political structure. •Taxation was heavy but fair, with no privileged tax exemptions. England at this time was a good example of capitalism.
New Methods of Textile Production • The textile production is the key example of industrialism emerging to supply the demands of an over growing market for everyday goods. • The industrial change took place in the countryside. • Although the eighteenth century economy was primarily agricultural, manufacturing also permeated(spread) rural areas. • The domestic, or putting out, system of textile production, were agents of urban textile. • By mid-eighteenth century; the demand for cotton exile was growing rapidly in Britain and North America which both countries had large domestic markets for goods. • To meet consumers demand; inventors started making different type of machines for cotton textiles: • Spinning Jenny. Created by james Hargreaves (1778). This machine allowed sixteen spindless(stick/pin) of thread to be spun. This was a machine used at home. • Water Frame. Created by RIchard Arkwright (1769). A water powered device designed to permit the production of a purely cotton fabric. This invention took cotton textile manufacture out of the home and put into the factory. Cotton output increased by 800 percent between 1780 and 1800
The Steam Engine -More than any other invention, the steam engine permitted industrialization to grow at a substantial rate, because it was the first time in human history where a machine could provide a steady and lengthy source of power. -Thomas Newcomen (1663-1729) invented the first practical engine to use steam power. -During the 1760’s, Scottish Engineer James Watts began to experiment on the machine, patented new invention designs in 1769. -Practical application for machine presented problems, required precise metal work.
More Information -Watt found a partner in Matthew Boulton (1728-1809). -The two worked with cannon manufacturer John Wilkinson to drill precise metal cylinders. -In 1776, Watt’s steam engine found its first commercial use in pumping water from mines in England. -The use of the steam engine expanded slowly because until 1800, Watt retained exclusive patent rights. However Boulton persuaded hi to make improvements and expand the use of the engine. -By the 19th century, the steam engine became the prime industry mover, eventually leading to a revolution in transportation.
Iron Production • High Quality iron basic element for industrial development • Three factors held back production • fuel - charcoal instead of coke • heat - used steam engine for blast furnaces • Iron demand was limited • Eventually British ironmakers began to use coke and steam engines
Coal Coke Iron Ore
More Information • Henry Cort Introduced a new puddling process • this process allowed the removal of more slag • Henry also developed a rolling mill
The Impact on Working Women • Diminished the importance and role of working women already in the workforce. • Women were involved in traditional European agriculture (they would glean grain, were in charge of milk and cheese production etc.) but the industrial revolution eroded their role. • Literature of the time even advocated removing women from the agricultural workforce. • Women quickly became the biggest opponents of agricultural improvement • Even non-mechanical equipment favored men, as many tools were heavier and unwieldy.
Non-Mechanized Equipment • Heavy scythes used by men replaced the lighter sickles used by women. Scythe Sickle
The Impact on Working Women • Women turned to the cottage industry and in worse cases, prostitution or other criminal activity. • They often worked as domestic servants. • They became more separate and distinct from men. • Due to the idea that women’s income was only meant to supplement the man’s contribution to the household, women were paid less than men.