Beginning • The Industrial Revolution transformed Europe from an agricultural society into an industrial society of constant growth. • New technology revolutionized the way people lived, worked, interacted, and governed. • Began in Great Britain around 1780, took 50 years to spread throughout Europe. • By 1814, one out of every four pieces of manufactured goods in the world came from British factories.
British Industry • The Industrial Revolution started because the British food supply rose, leading to cheaper food and more money to purchase manufactured goods. • The rise in available food also led to a population boom. Lots of available workers. • British investors had a lot of money to invest in new technology, machines, and factories. • Because of its colonies, Britain had lots of natural resources and a supply of markets in which to sell goods.
Cotton • Cotton production was one of Britain’s industries. • Cotton was traditionally spun and weaved by hand, and turned into clothing and other goods by workers who worked at home. • New inventions, such as the water-powered loom, made it possible to produce cotton goods faster. • Workers were brought out of the home and into factories that were built around machines.
Cotton and Steam • In 1782, James Watt adapted the steam-powered engine to drive machinery. • Steam power was used to spin and weave cotton, replacing the water-powered loom. • Production increased and factories could be built anywhere – access to running water was no longer needed. • By 1840, cotton cloth became Britain’s most valuable product.
Steam Engine • The steam engine drove the Industrial Revolution. • Because it ran on coal, the coal industry expanded. • Britain had a huge supply of coal. • Coal also allowed for the production of better quality iron, which was used to construct stronger buildings and tools. • Britain produced 17,000 tons of iron in 1740. By 1852, it was producing 3 million tons a year.
Railroads • Resources needed to be moved to factories to make goods, and goods needed to be moved to markets. • Railroads were created to solve this problem. • By 1850, Britain had 6,000 miles of track. Trains were powered by coal and steam engines. • Peasants and farmers moved to the cities to build railroads and work in factories.
The Cycle of Growth • The speed of trains made it cheaper to transport goods, which made goods cheaper. The trains also brought the goods to new markets. • This allowed more people to buy goods, and created more of a demand for new goods. • This led to more factories and a demand for new inventions and new machines that could produce goods cheaper and faster.
Effects on People • Europe’s population doubled between 1750 and 1850 to 266 million people. • Less disease, more food. • People moved to the city to work in the newly created industries – nine British cities had over 100,000 people in 1850. • Many people lived in miserable conditions in the rapidly growing cities. • A movement was started to clean up the cities and provide adequate waste removal and access to clean air and water.
Workers • Industrial workers faced horrible working conditions. • Some worked 16 hours a day, 6 days a week. • The average American in 2012 works 7.5 hours a day, 5 days a week. • There was no minimum wage • Workers could be fired for any reason with no warning • Factories were often unsafe and hot.
Workers, cont. • In Britain, women and children made up 2/3 of the workforce. • A child could work in a factory at the age of 9, but was limited to an 8 hour work day until the age of 13. • Women were paid less than men – sometimes half as much for the same work. • Married men were expected to work to support the family. • Married women were expected to stay at home and perform low paying jobs, such as doing other people’s laundry.
Socialism • The harsh working conditions led to interest in a movement called socialism. • Under socialism, a society, usually government, owns and controls the means of production, such as factories and natural resources. • In theory, all people would benefit the same from a socialist factory’s work, because “everyone” owns the factory. • Early socialists thought that this idea would promote equality among the people in a society and replace competition with cooperation.