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Acids and bases. Two Sad Jokes. Q: What did the big chimney say to the little chimney? A: You’re too little to smoke! How do you get a kleenex to dance? Put a little boogey in it. . One more sad rhyme…. Little Jimmy took a drink but now he’ll drink no more….

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two sad jokes
Two Sad Jokes
  • Q: What did the big chimney say to the little chimney?

A: You’re too little to smoke!

  • How do you get a kleenex to dance?
  • Put a little boogey in it.
one more sad rhyme
One more sad rhyme…
  • Little Jimmy took a drink but now he’ll drink no more….
  • For what he thought was H2O, was H2SO4
slide4
Acid
  • In an aqueous solution, acids produce hydrogen H+ ions.
  • Example: hydrochloric acid, HCl, which is found in our stomachs. In water the acid will produce H+ and Cl- ions.

HCl (aq) H+(aq) + Cl- (aq)

Source: http://science.widener.edu/svb/molecule/binary.html

characteristics of an acid
Characteristics of an acid
  • Sour taste;
  • Can burn the skin;
  • Conducts electricity;
  • Reacts with metals to produce hydrogen gas (H2);
  • Neutralizes a base;
  • Reacts with carbonate and bicarbonate to produce carbon dioxide gas (CO2).
a few acids
A few acids
  • lemons, stomach acid, acid rain, battery acid, vinegar…
slide7
Base
  • In an aqueous solution a base produces hydroxide OH- ions.

Example: sodium hydroxide (NaOH). In water this base produces Na+ and OH- ions.

NaOH(aq) OH-(aq) + Na+(aq)

Source: http://homepage1.nifty.com/scilla/bunsi/naoh/naoh.jpg

characteristics of a base
Characteristics of a base
  • Bitter taste;
  • Slippery texture, can burn skin;
  • Conducts electricity;
  • Neutralizes acids;
  • Reacts with certain metals (like Al) to produce hydrogen gas (H2).
  • Does not react with carbonates.
a few bases
A few bases
  • bleach, baking soda, soap, Windex, tonic water…
acid or base
Acid or Base?
  • H2CO3 H+ + CO32-
  • Ca(OH)2 Ca2+ + OH-
  • NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OH-
  • KOH K+ + OH-
ph scale
pH scale
  • The pH scale allows us to « quantify » or measure the acidity or the alcalinity of a substance.
  • The pH scale goes from 0 to 14; 0 is the most acidic, 14 is the most alcaline (basic) and 7 is neutral (distilled water).
ph scale1
pH Scale

Source: http://www.mddep.gouv.qc.ca/eau/eco_aqua/lacs_acides/2004/echelle-ph.htm

ph scale2
pH scale

Source: http://www.atmosphere.mpg.de/enid/0,55a304092d09/3__Pluies_acides/-_Qu_est-ce_que_c_est__2us.html

chelle de ph suite
Échelle de pH, suite…

Source: http://archive.idrc.ca/aquatox/fr/whatsnu/check.html

tests to determine the acidity or the alcalinity ph of a substance
Tests to determine the acidity or the alcalinity (pH) of a substance
  • Red and blue litmus paper
    • Acids turn blue litmus paper red.
    • Bases turn red litmus paper blue
    • Neutral substances will not change the colour of red OR blue litmus paper.

Source: http://cahm.nbed.nb.ca/Science/science61d.htm

ph paper
pH Paper
  • You compare the colour with a given chart
  • Instead of telling you whether something is an acid or a base it gives you the exact pH.

Source: http://escalade.nbed.nb.ca/images/ex15.jpg

other indicators
Other indicators
  • Other substances can be used to measure pH such as cabbage juice!

Source: http://www.csvt.qc.ca/patriotes/sciences/scp4/dufort/4-2.htm

neutralization
Neutralization
  • An acid reacts with a base to produce water and a salt. (a pH of 7 is neutral)

Acid + base salt + water

Ex: HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O