Acids • When acids dissolve in water, they ionize (form ions). • When acids ionize, they form H+ ions. • These H+ ions give acids their properties HCl = H+ Cl- Cl- H+ Cl- Cl- H+
Characteristics of Acids • Acids tend to taste sour. • Think of several examples of acids. • Lemons, oranges, grapes, grapefruit, vinegar. • These foods taste sour because they contain acids.
Characteristics of Acids • Acids are corrosive. This means it can damage your skin and other materials. • Acids also can conduct electricity. • Acids cause pH (litmus) paper to turn red, orange, or yellow.
Characteristics of Acids Based on the table above, what pH do acids have? pH of below 7 What does the pH scale actually measure? It measures the amount of H+ ions. The closer the pH is to zero, the more H+ ions it contains.
Bases • When bases dissolve in water, they ionize (form ions). • When bases ionize, they form OH- ions. • These OH- ions give bases their properties NaOH = Na+ OH- Na+ OH- Na+ Na+ OH-
Characteristics of Bases • Base tend to taste bitter. (Do not taste these yourself!!!!!!) • Think of several examples of bases. • Soap, bleach, ammonia, drano, glass cleaner. • What do all those substances have in common? • They are all cleaning agents!
Characteristics of Bases • Bases are just as dangerous as bases. This means it can damage your skin and other materials. • Bases also can conduct electricity. • Bases cause pH (litmus) paper to turn green-blue, blue, and violet.
Characteristics of Bases Based on the table above, what pH do bases have? pH above 7 This means bases have fewer H+ ions and more OH+ ions.
Bases react with phenolphthalein • Phenolphthalein reacts with substances that have a pH higher than 7. • When it comes in contact with a base, it turn magenta, bright pink!!!!! • When it comes in contact with an acid, it stay clear.
What is a substance has a pH of exactly 7? • Water has a pH of exactly 7. Is water an acid or base? Neither, since it is exactly 7. Water is described as a neutral substance.
What happens if you mix an acid and base together. • You get a neutralization reaction if you mix an acid and base together. • HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O The end result is a salt and WATER!!!!!!! This is why we call it a neutralization reaction! You get neutral water after the reaction!!!!