Acids and Bases - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Acids and Bases

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    1. Acids and Bases

    3. General Properties of Bases: Donate Hydroxide ion in solution Taste bitter Slippery

    4. Strengths If an acid or base ionizes (dissociates/breaks apart) in water Examples of strong acids: ones that release the most H+ possible. - HBr, HCl, HI, HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4 Examples of strong bases: ones that release the most OH- possible - NaOH, Ba(OH)2, Ca(OH)2, KOH

    5. Acid/Base Calculations; 1 x 10-14 = [H3O+] x [OH-] p"anything" = - log (anything) pH = - log [H3O+] pOH = - log [OH-] 14 = pH + pOH [H3O+] = 10-pH [OH-] = 10-pOH

    6. pH calculations; http://www.chem.lsu.edu/lucid/allen/ch1202/pH_worksheet.html

    7. 3 Traditional Definitions of Acids and Bases: Arrhenius Bronsted-Lowry Lewis

    8. Arrhenius Acid/Base Definition: Arrhenius Acid releases H+ in solution Arrhenius Base releases OH- in solution

    9. Bronsted-Lowry Acid/Base Definition: Bronsted-Lowry Acid : proton donor Bronsted-Lowry Base : proton acceptor

    10. Lewis Acid/Base Theory: Acids accept electrons Bases donate electrons

    11. When acids and bases meet The acid in the reactants is the acid and what it becomes after losing its H is called the conjugate base. The base in the reactants is the base and once it gains an H, it is called the conjugate acid. This all revolves around the giving and taking of H.the giver of the H is the acid (the compound that has it to spare) the receiver of the H (the compound that could use some more) is the base.

    12. Conjugate Acid/Base Pairs: To get the conjugate acid. add an H+ To get the conjugate base. take away an H+

    13. Conjugate Acid/Base Pairs:

    14. An acid + base = A salt and water!

    15. Amphoteric substances: Can act like an acid or base depending on the situation