CHAPTER 21 QUIT Absolute Monarchs in Europe, 1500–1800 Chapter Overview Time Line Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism 1 SECTION MAP France’s Ultimate Monarch 2 SECTION Central European Monarchs Clash 3 SECTION Russian Czars Increase Power 4 SECTION GRAPH Parliament Limits the English Monarchy 5 SECTION Visual Summary
CHAPTER 21 Chapter Overview HOME Absolute Monarchs in Europe, 1500–1800 From 1500 to 1800, absolute monarchs rule in Europe. In countries such as Spain and France, rulers wield great power and build major monuments to their rule. In countries such as England and the Netherlands, constitutional law limits royal power.
CHAPTER 21 1800 1500 HOME Absolute Monarchs in Europe, 1500–1800 Time Line 1533Ivan the Terrible begins to rule Russia. 1643Louis XIV begins to rule France. 1697Peter the Great begins European tour. He later built St. Petersburg to rival European capitals. 1579Netherlands declares independence from Spain. 1649Puritans under Oliver Cromwell execute English King. 1756Frederick the Great begins Seven Years’ War.
1 HOME Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism MAP Key Idea In the 1500s, Philip II of Spain becomes the strongest ruler in Europe, helping establish absolute monarchy. But in time Spain weakens, and the Netherlands breaks away from Spanish rule. Overview Assessment
1 TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism MAP Overview •Philip II •absolute monarch •divine right WHY IT MATTERS NOW During a time of religious and economic instability, Philip II ruled Spain with a strong hand. When faced with crises, many heads of government take on additional economic or political powers. Assessment
1 1 Section Assessment Absolute Monarch HOME Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism MAP 1. List the conditions that allowed European monarchs to gain power. Then list the ways they exercised their increased power. Rise of cities Wealth of colonies Growth of national kingdoms Breakdown of Church authority Growth of middle class Decline of feudalism Revolts Economic and religious crises Reduced power of nobles and representative bodies Created new government bureaucracies Regulated worship, social gatherings, and economy Increased size of court continued . . .
1 HOME Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism MAP 1 Section Assessment 2. What does the art described in this section reveal about the cultures of Spain and the Netherlands?THINK ABOUT •what the art of Velázquez and El Greco revealsabout Spain •what the art of Rembrandt and Vermeer revealsabout the Netherlands ANSWER •Velázquez showed pride of Spanish monarchs. •El Greco showed Catholic faith in Spain. •Rembrandt and Vermeer showed the importance of merchants, civic leaders, and the middle class in the Netherlands. Possible Responses: End of Section 1
2 HOME France’s Ultimate Monarch Key Idea Religious wars plague France in the 1500s. With the rise of Louis XIV, France becomes Europe’s most powerful nation. Louis’s rule extends French power and prestige, but he leads the country into crippling wars. Overview Assessment
2 TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME France’s Ultimate Monarch Overview •Edict of Nantes •Cardinal Richelieu •skepticism •Louis XIV •intendant •Jean Baptiste Colbert • War of the Spanish Succession WHY IT MATTERS NOW After a century of war and riots, France was ruled by Louis XIV, the most powerful monarch of his time. Louis used his power to build a great palace and sponsor art that is part of France’s cultural legacy. Assessment
2 2 Section Assessment 1643 1715 HOME France’s Ultimate Monarch 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the major events of Louis XIV’s reign. 1648-1653 1661 1667 1672 1685 1701-1713 Louis becomes king. Riots disrupt France. Louis starts rule. Louis invades the Spanish Netherlands. Louis invades the Dutch Netherlands. Louis voids Edict of Nantes. Louis fights War of Spanish Succession. Louis dies. continued . . .
2 HOME France’s Ultimate Monarch 2 Section Assessment 2. Many historians think of Louis XIV as the perfect example of an absolute monarch. Do you agree? Explain why or why not. THINK ABOUT •the description of an absolute monarch at the end of Section 1 •the ways in which Louis XIV fits that description •any ways in which Louis XIV does not fit the description ANSWER Yes—regulated worship by voiding Edict of Nantes, weakened nobility by using intendants and making nobles live at court, built palace to show power, used mercantilist policies to control economy Possible Response: continued . . .
2 HOME France’s Ultimate Monarch 2 Section Assessment 3. How did the policies of Colbert and Louis XIV affect the French economy? Explain both positive and negative effects. THINK ABOUT •Colbert’s attempts to make France self-sufficient •what happened when Louis cancelled the Edict of Nantes •the cost of Versailles and wars ANSWER Colbert’s mercantilism helped economy by building up and protecting French industries. Louis XIV helped economy by using Colbert’s policies but hurt it by voiding Edict of Nantes, which drove out Huguenots, and by taxing and spending to fund building and wars. Possible Responses: End of Section 2
3 HOME Central European Monarchs Clash Key Idea Central Europe also becomes the scene of devastating wars. The most destructive conflict, the Thirty Years’ War, severely weakens the Holy Roman Empire. Afterward, Austria and Prussia struggle for power. Overview Assessment
3 TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME Central European Monarchs Clash Overview •Thirty Years’ War •Maria Theresa •Frederick the Great •Seven Years’ War WHY IT MATTERS NOW After a period of turmoil, absolute monarchs ruled Austria and the Germanic state of Prussia. Prussia built a strong military tradition in Germany that contributed in part to world wars in the 20th century. Assessment
3 Points of Comparison Maria Theresa Frederick the Great Years of reign Foreign policy Success in war Steps to become absolute monarchs HOME Central European Monarchs Clash 3 Section Assessment 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Compare Maria Theresa and Frederick the Great. 1740-1780 1740-1786 Allied with former enemy France Allied with Austria’s former ally Britain Lost Silesia in War of Austrian Succession and did not regain it in Seven Years’ War Gained Silesia in War of Austrian Succession and neither gained nor lost in Seven Years’ War Followed his father’s military policies Imposed limits on nobility continued . . .
3 HOME Central European Monarchs Clash 3 Section Assessment 2. Name several ways that the Peace of Westphalia laid the foundations of modern Europe. THINK ABOUT •religious effects •diplomatic effects •political effects ANSWER •ended religious wars, allowing Europe to split into Catholic and Protestant areas •weakened Holy Roman Empire •recognized Europe as collection of independent states •began modern way of negotiating Possible Responses: End of Section 3
4 HOME Russian Czars Increase Power GRAPH Key Idea Russian rulers begin to dominate the nobility in the 16th and 17th centuries. Under Peter the Great, Russia opens up to the West and becomes a key European power. Overview Assessment
4 TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME Russian Czars Increase Power GRAPH Overview •Ivan the Terrible •boyars •Peter the Great •westernization WHY IT MATTERS NOW Peter the Great made many changes in Russia to try to make it more like western Europe. Many Russians today debate whether to model themselves on the West or to focus on traditional Russian culture. Assessment
4 Peter the Great HOME Russian Czars Increase Power GRAPH 4 Section Assessment 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the important events of Peter the Great’s reign. Had St. Petersburg built Visited western Europe Fought Sweden for Baltic land Took control of church Reduced power of landowners Modernized army Tried to westernize Russia continued . . .
4 HOME Russian Czars Increase Power GRAPH 4 Section Assessment 2. Do you think Ivan the Terrible or Peter the Great was more of an absolute monarch? Explain the standards by which you made your decision. THINK ABOUT •ways that each increased the power of the Russian czar •long term effects of each one’s rule ANSWER Ivan—Took title czar, which means “caesar”; expanded Russia; gave law code; organized his own police force; persecuted boyars; created new class of nobles. Aimed to increase and protect his own power more than to improve Russia. Peter—Took control of church; reduced power of landowners; strengthened army; imposed heavy taxes; forced nobles to move to St. Petersburg. Made reforms whether people wanted them or not. Possible Responses: continued . . .
4 HOME Russian Czars Increase Power GRAPH 4 Section Assessment 3. Which of Peter the Great’s actions reveal that he saw himself as the highest authority in Russia? Explain. THINK ABOUT •steps he took to reduce the authority of others •actions that overturned traditional sources of authority in Russia ANSWER •showed he saw himself above church by taking control of it •showed he saw himself above nobility by weakening it and forcing it to westernize •showed he saw himself above tradition by forcing Western customs on Russia Possible Responses: End of Section 4
5 HOME Parliament Limits the English Monarchy Key Idea English kings battle Parliament for power in the 1600s, leading to civil war. Parliament wins, and a Puritan government is formed. The monarchy is later restored, but its power is limited by law. Overview Assessment
5 TERMS & NAMES MAIN IDEA HOME Parliament Limits the English Monarchy Overview •Charles I •English Civil War •Oliver Cromwell •Restoration •habeas corpus •Glorious Revolution •constitutional monarchy •cabinet WHY IT MATTERS NOW Absolute rulers in England were overthrown, and Parliament gained power. Many of the government reforms of this period contributed to the democratic tradition of the United States. Assessment
5 Monarch Conflicts with Parliament James I Charles I James II HOME Parliament Limits the English Monarchy 5 Section Assessment 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the causes of each monarch’s conflict with Parliament. • Believed in divine right to rule • Wanted large funds to pay for court and wars • Did not make Puritan reforms • Wanted funds to finance wars • Tried to force all subjects to be Anglican • Resisted Parliament’s attempts to restrict his power • Flaunted his faith • Named Catholics to high office continued . . .
5 HOME Parliament Limits the English Monarchy 5 Section Assessment 2. In your opinion, which decisions of Charles I made his conflict with Parliament worse? Explain. THINK ABOUT •decisions that lost him the support of Parliament •decisions that lost him the support of his people ANSWER • He alienated Parliament by dissolving it, ignoring Petition of Right, and trying to arrest Parliamentary leaders. • He alienated his subjects by imposing fines and fees on them and trying to force them all to be Anglican. Possible Responses: End of Section 5