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CPU の基本 知識 Basic Knowledge for a CPU. コンピュータの基本ハードウェア構成 Basic structure of a computer system CPU (プロセッサ)の構成要素 Structural elements of a CPU (processor) 命令の取り組み、解釈、実行 Fetch, decode and execution of instructions 算術論理計算機構( ALU )とレジスタ Arithmetic Logical Unit ( ALU ) and Registers.

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cpu basic knowledge for a cpu
CPUの基本知識Basic Knowledgefor aCPU
  • コンピュータの基本ハードウェア構成Basic structure of a computer system
  • CPU(プロセッサ)の構成要素Structural elements of a CPU (processor)
  • 命令の取り組み、解釈、実行Fetch, decode and execution of instructions
  • 算術論理計算機構(ALU)とレジスタArithmetic Logical Unit(ALU) and Registers

福永 力; Chikara Fukunaga

basic hardware structure of a computer
コンピュータの基本ハードウェア構成Basic hardware structure of a computer
  • 中央処理装置(CPU)Central Processor Unit(CPU)
  • メモリMemory (2n Byte Space=Address n bit)
    • Space n=8/256, 16/64k, 32/4GB
    • プログラム内蔵方式では必須Essential for Program Storage
    • ROM: Read Only Memory
    • RAM: Read Access Memory
  • 入出力装置I/O Interface
    • Parallel: PCI …
    • Serial: USB, Video-graphic, Ethernet, Firewire …

福永 力; Chikara Fukunaga

principal structure of a cpu
プロセッサの構成要素Principal structure of a CPU
  • Processor = CPU in a single chip
  • Microprocessor (Intel) = Processor
  • Microcomputer = Processor+Memeory+I/O I/F

福永 力; Chikara Fukunaga

fetch decode execution of instructions
命令の取り組みと実行Fetch,decode & execution of instructions
  • プログラム(メモリ内収録)から命令(Instruction)の取り組み(Fetch)
  • Instructionの解析(Decode)
  • Instructionの実行(Execution)

福永 力; Chikara Fukunaga

arithmatic logical unit alu registers
演算機とレジスターArithmatic Logical Unit (ALU) & Registers
  • CPUに用いられるさまざまなレジスタの例Examples of Various registers used in a CPU
    • 汎用(浮動小数点演算)レジスタGeneral Purpose Registers: GPR0-31 (32 32-bit registers)Floating Point Registers: FPR0-31 (32 64-bit registers)
    • 状態保存, 例外検知レジスタ:Condition Register: CR, FPCReXceptional Execution Reg.: XER
    • プログラムカウンタ:Program Counter: PC
    • powerPC4の例Example of powerPC4
    • Instr. rD,rS,rB(rD ← rS・rB) (・= any binary calcul.)

福永 力; Chikara Fukunaga

cpu cache development of cpu cache and memory connection
CPU、Cacheとメモリのつなぎの変遷Development of CPU, cache and Memory connection

福永 力; Chikara Fukunaga

1 chip processor intel 4004 first single chip processor intel 4004
最初の1 chip processor Intel 4004First single chip processor Intel 4004
  • 日本のビジコン社電卓用に開発されたDeveloped for a electric calculator of Busicom ltd. Japan
  • 同社は小型高速プリンター付電卓の開発を目論むThe company wants to develop small calculator with a printer
  • インテルに制御用LSIの開発以来The company asked Intel to develop several LSIsfor calculator control
  • インテル、マイクロコンピュータセットの提案Intel proposed a microcomputer set for this control (CPU, ROM, RAM, Shift registers)
  • 1969年4月ビジコン社、11月商品として発売Apr.,1971 completed, Nov. ,1971 released

福永 力; Chikara Fukunaga

4004 overview of 4004
4004の概要Overview of 4004
  • 4 bit CPU w/ 46 instructions
  • Clock 750kHz
  • 命令(Instructions) with 1 word (8bit) 8 clock (3 clock for 12-bit address, 2 clock for 8-bit instruction, 3 clock for execution) 2 word (16bit) 16 clock (8clock×2word)
  • Address space 4kB (12bit) for ROM/RAM
  • 16 4-bit/8 8-bit general purpose registers
  • Address stack for subroutine calls (depth 4)
  • 現代のプロセッサとほぼ同じ内部構造(Almost similar architecture with amodern processor chip)

福永 力; Chikara Fukunaga

1 after 4004
その後の発展(1)After 4004
  • 1971-1973(First generation)
    • Intel 4004(4bit)
    • Intel 8008(8bit)文字列操作 for alphanumeric handling
    • 4-8bit
    • プログラム Program with 機械語 machine language、アセンブリassembly
    • pMOSトランジスタ Transistor(O(1k))

福永 力; Chikara Fukunaga

2 after 8008
その後の発展(2)after 8008
  • 1974-1976(第2世代;2nd generation)
    • 8-bit Intel 8080、Motorola 6800
    • プログラム program with assembly、compiler(assembler)
    • nMOSトランジスタ Transistor
    • (Development of )DRAMの発展(4kbit)
    • (Floppy based) ディスクオペレーティングシステムDisk Operating System DOS
    • nMOSトランジスタ Transistor(O(3-10k))
    • Zilog Z80(~8080) with new nMOS technology

福永 力; Chikara Fukunaga

3 after z80
その後の発展(3)After Z80
  • 1977-1986(第3世代;3rd generation)
    • 16-bit Intel 8086、80286、Z8000、M680x0
    • プログラミングAssembly(assembler)、C、Basic
    • 8086→MS/DOS、68000→Mac/Apple
    • Network、 Graphics
    • HMOS(High performance nMOS)トランジスタTransistor(O(100k))
    • CMOS process (1980以降)
  • 1987(第4世代;4th generation)32-bit
    • Intel 80386、Pentium、powerPC、RISC

福永 力; Chikara Fukunaga