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Lectures on Knowledge Management. Khurshid Ahmad Professor of Artificial Intelligence Centre for Knowledge Management March 2002. C OMPUTER-BASED K NOWLEDGE M ANAGEMENT. grapeVINE Technologies. A Knowledge Management organisation that was taken over:

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lectures on knowledge management

Lectures on Knowledge Management

Khurshid Ahmad

Professor of Artificial Intelligence

Centre for Knowledge Management

March 2002

c omputer based k nowledge m anagement
COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

grapeVINE Technologies

A Knowledge Management organisation that was taken over:

iPlanet and Sun Microsystems announce Sun’s Acquisition of grapeVINE Technologies.

grapeVINE’s industry leading Knowledge Management technology will integrate with iPlanet Portal Server to bring a new level of intelligence to e-commerce portal platforms.

c omputer based k nowledge m anagement1
COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

WORKFLOW & KNOWLEDGE FLOW

Current knowledge management systems can be viewed as workflow systems that deliver work on time to the relevant persons and results despatched in time, efficiently and cost effectively from the workers to the managers. There is an increase in productivity, and innovation is facilitated by easy and timely access to information about products, services, human resources and the documents produced by and related to the organisation.

c omputer based k nowledge m anagement2
COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

Challenge of Knowledge Management

  • To efficiently capture trace of knowledge (to process, index and retrieve text/images)
  • To encourage people to record their knowledge based on experience i.e. produce a trace, and to use other people’s trace of knowledge
  • To reward (punish?) people for sharing (or not sharing) their knowledge
  • To keep the traces updated:
    • Motivate the knowledge creation ‘crew’ to work as a team

 Encourage the knowledge creation ‘crew’ to share values and aspirations

c omputer based k nowledge m anagement3
COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

WORKFLOW & KNOWLEDGE FLOW

The knowledge management of the future should facilitate the work of the knowledge engineer in addition to facilitating the flow of documents. This suggests that a knowledge management system should have some comprehension of the notations and conventions used by humans in communicating orally or through documents.

c omputer based k nowledge m anagement4
COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

KNOWLEDGE IN TEXT

If any essence or trace of the knowledge of the individuals is left behind then it is usually found in documents, comprising words, illustrations and drawings, mathematical and other symbols.

c omputer based k nowledge m anagement5
COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

KNOWLEDGE IN TEXT

  • Usually, a tangible trace of specialist knowledge may be found in the document archives.
  • Knowledge management systems should be based on how humans disseminate knowledge through text.
  • The effective management of the documents emanating from organisations, is perhaps the first step in the effective organisation of knowledge.
c omputer based k nowledge m anagement6
COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

grapeVINE Technologies

A Knowledge Management organisation that was taken over:

iPlanet and Sun Microsystems announce Sun’s Acquisition of grapeVINE Technologies.

grapeVINE’s industry leading Knowledge Management technology will integrate with iPlanet Portal Server to bring a new level of intelligence to e-commerce portal platforms.

c omputer based k nowledge m anagement7
COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

PROACTIVE SYSTEMS: KNOWLEDGE IN TEXT

  • Knowledge management systems track the growth of knowledge within organisations by a systematic and continuous examination of the documents within an organisation and across organisations. Computer systems capable of:
  • Capturing, analysing & summarising texts
  • Hyperlinking, classifying, updating texts
  • Extracting terms and names from texts, and
  • Securing and routing texts,
  • are being used to study how concepts are transformed into artefacts and how artefacts help in creating and revising concepts.
c omputer based k nowledge m anagement8
COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

PROACTIVE SYSTEMS: KMS INC.

Knowledge Management Software (KMS) Inc. is a software developer in the knowledge management market (www.kmsoftware.com). The new website has led to a ‘significant improvement in the company’s ability to service its customers by shifting 85% of all incoming help desk calls to the site, where questions are answered automatically using the company’s pioneering Deskartes knowledge management technology’.

c omputer based k nowledge m anagement9
COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

KNOWLEDGE IN TEXT

  • Knowledge management systems track the growth of knowledge within organisations by a systematic and continuous examination of the documents within an organisation and across organisations. Computer systems capable of
  • capturing, analysing & summarising texts
  • extracting terms and names from texts, and
  • routing texts,
  • are being used to study how concepts are transformed into artefacts and how artefacts help in creating and revising concepts.
c omputer based k nowledge m anagement10
COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

Microsoft Sharepoint

  • Microsoft have developed the SharePoint system: a set of two new technologies from Microsoft that were developed to facilitate information sharing both within organizations and over the Internet,
  • SharePoint Portal Server 2001 and
  • SharePoint Team Services.
  • Microsoft Sharepoint System is an innovative way of looking at how workers in an organisation share knowledge.
computer based k nowledge m anagement
COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

Microsoft Sharepoint

  • Knowledge management case studies clearly show that in any given enterprise small and ad hoc teams share information in very different ways than do large teams.
  • Small or ad hoc workgroups need informal means to work together on group deliverables, share documents, and communicate status with one another.
    •  Microsoft suggested solution SharePoint Team Services–based Web sites.
  • Large workgroups with structured processes need greater management over their information and require features like formal publishing processes and the ability to search for and aggregate content from multiple data stores and file formats.
    •  Microsoft suggested solution SharePoint Portal Server 2001
computer based k nowledge m anagement1
COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

Microsoft Sharepoint

  • Microsoft SharePoint Team Services:
  • To create Web site for sharing information such as documents, calendars, announcements, and other postings.
  • Microsoft SharePoint Portal Server 2001
  • To aggregate content
  • To manage documents
  • To create Web Portals
  • Technology used: E-mail, File Servers, Office XP, Browsers, Front Page, Text and Image Search DBMS, Document Management Systems, OLE DB, Microsoft ActiveX® Data Objects (ADO), Extensible Markup Language (XML)
computer based k nowledge m anagement2
COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

Microsoft Sharepoint

  • E-mail E
  • File Servers, 1
  • Office XP, E
  • Browsers, E
  • Front Page, E
  • Text and Image Search DBMS, 2
  • Document Management Systems, 1
  • OLE DB, 7
  • Microsoft ActiveX® Data Objects (ADO), 2
  • Extensible Markup Language (XML)
computer based k nowledge m anagement4
COMPUTER-BASEDKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

Microsoft Sharepoint

Integrated Document Management

The process from document creation through intranet publishing can be a string of disjointed actions, unconnected with business processes.

SharePoint Portal Server includes features like document locking, versioning, and publishing and makes these features accessible to the average user. It delivers easy-to-use, document-management features that are integrated with the tools and applications that are used to create and manage documents, with Microsoft Windows® Explorer and Microsoft Office 2000 applications like Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft PowerPoint®.

c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies microsoft inc
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Microsoft Inc.

The conventional ‘waterfall approach’ to software development

Requirements Specification

Detailed Design (modules)

c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies microsoft inc1
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Microsoft Inc.

Requirements Specification

Detailed Design (modules)

Module Construction & Debug

Module Construction & Debug

Module Construction & Debug

The conventional ‘waterfall approach’ to software development

Integration and System Test

c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies microsoft inc2
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Microsoft Inc.

Requirements Specification

Detailed Design (modules)

Module Construction & Debug

Module Construction & Debug

Module Construction & Debug

The conventional ‘waterfall approach’ to software development

Integration and System Test

Module Rework

Module Rework

Module Rework

Re-integration and System Test

c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies microsoft inc3
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Microsoft Inc.
  • “SYNCH-AND-STABILIZE” DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
  • Planning Phase
  • Vision Statement;
  • Outline & Working Specification;
  • Development Schedule;
  • Feature Team Formation
  • Development Phase
  • Feature Development in 3 or 4 Milestones
  • Stabilization Phase
  • Code Completion;
  • &  Testing;

Final Stabilization;

Ship Software

c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies microsoft inc4
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Microsoft Inc.

Planning Phase

VISION STATEMENT

E.g. 15 Features and Prioritisation

Done by Product (& Program) Management

OUTLINE & WORKING SPECIFICATION

Done by Program Managers with Developers.

Define Feature Functionality, Architectural Issues & Component

Interdependencies

  • “SYNCH-AND-STABILIZE” DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

DEVELOPMENT SCHEDULE &

FEATURE TEAM FORMATION

A big feature team will have 1 Program

Manager, 5 Developers, 5 Testers

c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies microsoft inc5
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Microsoft Inc.
  • “SYNCH-AND-STABILIZE” DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

Planning Phase

VISION STATEMENT

E.g. 15 Features and Prioritisation Done by Product (& Program) Management

OUTLINE & WORKING SPECIFICATION

Done by Program Managers with Developers. Define Feature Functionality, Architectural

Issues & Component Interdependencies

DEVELOPMENT SCHEDULE & FEATURE TEAM FORMATION

A big feature team will have 1 Program Manager, 5 Developers, 5 Testerm

Development Phase

FEATURE DEVELOPMENT

IN 3 OR 4 MILESTONES

Program Managers: Evolve the Specification

Developers: Design, Code, Debug

Testers: Test, Paired with Developers

microsoft s synch and stabilize development process time usually 12 or 24 month cycles
MICROSOFT’S “SYNCH-AND-STABILIZE” DEVELOPMENT PROCESSTime: Usually 12- or 24- month Cycles

COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Microsoft Inc.

Planning Phase

Development Phase

FEATURE DEVELOPMENT IN 3 OR 4 MILESTONES

Program Managers: Evolve the Spec

Developers: Design, Code, Debug

Testers: Test, Paired with Developers

Stabilisation Phase

Feature Complete

CODE COMPLETE

and  TEST, FINAL STABILZATION & SHIP

Program Managers: Monitor OEMs, ISVs, Customer Feedback

Developers: Final Debug, Code Stabilization

Testers: Recreate and Isolate Errors

development phase milestones breakdown
Development Phase Milestones Breakdown

COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Microsoft Inc.

MILESTONE 1 (first 1/3 features)

Development (Design, Coding. Prototyping)

Usability Lab

Private Release Testing

Daily Builds

Feature Debugging

Feature Integrations

Code Stabilisation (no severe bugs)

Buffer Time (20-30%)

c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies microsoft inc6
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Microsoft Inc.

Development Phase Milestones Breakdown

MILESTONE 1 (first 1/3 features)

Development (Design, Coding. Prototyping)

Usability Lab, Private Release Testing, Daily Builds

Feature Debugging, Feature Integrations, Code Stabilisation (no severe bugs), Buffer Time (20-30%)

MILESTONE 2 (next 1/3 features)

Development

Usability Lab

Private Release Testing

Daily Builds

Feature Debugging

Feature Integrations

Code Stabilisation

Buffer Time

c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies microsoft inc7
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Microsoft Inc.

Development Phase Milestones Breakdown

MILESTONE 1 (first 1/3 features)

Development (Design, Coding. Prototyping)

Usability Lab, Private Release Testing, Daily Builds

Feature Debugging, Feature Integrations, Code Stabilisation (no severe bugs), Buffer Time (20-30%)

MILESTONE 2 (next 1/3 features)

Development, Usability Lab, Private Release Testing, Daily Builds

Feature Debugging, Feature Integrations, Code Stabilisation

Buffer Time

MILESTONE 3(last 1/3 features)

Development, Usability Lab

Private Release Testing, Daily Builds

Feature Debugging, Feature Integrations

Feature Complete

Code Complete

Code Stabilisation

Buffer Time

Zero Bug Release

Release to Manufacturing

c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies siemens ag 1
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG1
  • During the 1980’s Siemens AG, a multinational, faced major challenges precipitated by political, economic and technological developments of the time.
    • Siemens is conglomerate in an old fashioned sense: its business ranges from global telecommunications to advanced chip manufacture, and from building/factory systems to health & medical systems.
  • Various constituents of the conglomerate have reported the use of knowledge management to transform its business from a centralised to a diversified and lean business.
c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies siemens ag 11
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG1

Within Siemens AG, a number of its conglomerates have developed methods and systems to manage knowledge:

1Tom Davenport and Gilbert Probst. (2000) (Eds.) Knowledge Management Case Book – Siemens Best Practises. Munich: Publicis MCD Verlag. pp 22-39

c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies siemens ag
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG
  • Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management
    • Until the 1980’s the principal customers of telecommunications equipment were large (near) monopoly state PT&T companies or Bell in the USA  Post 1980’s telecomms markets were DEREGULATED and the monopolies were unbundled.
    • The use of computers for switching and routing changed the equipment market altogether.
    • New entrants challenged former monopoly suppliers with new cheaper products and services
c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies siemens ag1

Customised

components

(system

integration)

Technical

solution

(knowledge)

Functional

solution

(knowledge)

Integration of

Complementers;

Architecture

Configurations

Leasing contracts;

Business case

Pricing Scheme

COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management- ‘Conceptual elements constituting a telecommunication solution.

Sales Project:

Complete Customer Solution

Material &

Physical

components

Integration into network of customers

Switches

Routers

Base Stations

New knowledge

products

c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies siemens ag2
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG
  • Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management
    • ‘ShareNet is an interactive knowledge management tool through which global network of shared knowledge could be established’1.
    • Share Net is a ‘business application system’ that allows to share knowledge and innovation on a global basis.
    • Share Net was designed to ‘foster the emergence of best practice sharing’2
c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies siemens ag3
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG
  • Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management
    • Typical KM systems are often ‘intranet based [..] “document repositories”’2.
    • Share Net is an interactive medium designed to act as a business application used to dissemintate experience based knowledge.
c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies siemens ag4
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Criticial Success Factors3

  • Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management
    • Leadership
    • Organisational Structure and Roll-out
    • Motivation and rewards
    • Organisational Culture and Change
    • Viable Business Case
c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies siemens ag5
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Criticial Success Factors3

  • Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management
    • Leadership:
      • The ShareNet Committee comprising 1 Siemens ICN Board Member; two Business Transformation Partners; 8 ICN local companies representatives (offices in 160 countries)
      • The Knowledge Officers comprised Share Net Committee.
c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies siemens ag6
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Criticial Success Factors3

  • Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management
    • Organisational Culture and RollOut:
      • Input of (undocumented) knowledge and the re-use of the elicited knowledge was the key. Leading experts acted as Contents Editors of the knowledge that was supplied by the knowledge workers.
      • Share Net had local consultants, acting as trainers in and facilitators of ShareNet, had IT support and -email hotline
      • ShareNet Committee held a bootcamp, campaigns to precipitate structural change within the organisation.
c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies siemens ag7
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Criticial Success Factors3

  • Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management
    • Organisational Culture and RollOut:
      • Avoid the creation of a document repository;
      • Avoid brochureware – sales/marketing hype
      • Create a knowledge-base rather than an information-base or data base
c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies siemens ag8
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Criticial Success Factors3

  • Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management
    • Motivation and Reward System
      • The ICN ShareNet Quality Assurance and Reward System was designed to encourage the capture and re-use of knowledge
      • A frequent-flyer/loyalty card scheme was set in place: More knowledge deposited and more knowledge re-used was rewarded by shares in Share Net. Shares were convertible into places on conferences or into ‘telecommunications equipment.
c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies siemens ag9
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management

ShareNet was organised in four concentric layers:

  • Share Net Committee --- the innermost layer; the highest decision making body for the developemnt of Share Net
  • the Technology/Support Layer -- Global Editor; User Hotline; IT Support
  • ShareNet Managers --- Supports contributors in capturing project experiences and marketing know-how, drives the development of reusable knowledge
  • Contributors --- Sales and Marketing people worldwide contirbuting their project experiences and methods into the ShareNet knowledge base.
c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies siemens ag10

Global

Editor

User

Hotline

ShareNet

Committee

IT

Support

COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Share Net

Managers

C

C

Share Net

Managers

C

Share Net

Managers

C

C

C

Share Net

Managers

C

Share Net

Managers

C

C

C

C

C

c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies siemens ag11

Share Net

Managers

C

C

Share Net

Managers

C

Share Net

Managers

C

Global

Editor

User

Hotline

ShareNet

Committee

C

C

Share Net

Managers

IT

Support

C

Share Net

Managers

C

C

C

C

C

COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Ars Digita built Share Net for ICN

www.arsdigita.com/customers/casestudies/siemens090700

slide46

COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management

ShareNet – a business application system

ShareNet was designed to emphasise in-depth business understanding rather being IT-focussed.

Gibbert et al argue that the focus on IT had ‘proved to be a pitfall of many similar knowledge management systems.’ (2000:31).

ShareNet provides a network that has been explicitly designed as an interactive medium rather being just a conduit to ‘document repositories’.

ShareNet functions as a business application, designed to dovetail ‘with employees’ ways of solving customer problems.

slide47

COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management

ShareNet – a business application system

A data-base requires an application program for the data to be used effectively that is the data be processed according to the user needs and requirements.

A business application program helps to access and to some extent to interpret the data (in a data base)

c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies siemens ag12
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management

  • ShareNet attempts to cover both the explicit and tacit knowledge of the sales value-creation process.
    • This includes project know-how, technical- and functional-solution components, and knowledge about the business environment (e.g., customer, competitor, market, technology and partner knowledge).
  • ShareNet was designed to emphasise experience-based knowledge.
  • Knowledge about the different steps of the value-creation chain was transferred to ShareNet solution objects (e.g., technical- or functional-solution knowledge) and ShareNet environment objects (e.g., customer or market knowledge).
  • ShareNet’s focus is less on ‘brochureware’, than on personal statements, comments, the ‘field experience’ of sales employees, or the real-life tested pros and cons of a solution.
c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies siemens ag13
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management

  • Share Net developers chose four ‘areas of intervention’:
    • Cognitive knowledge or know what
    • Skills or know-how
    • Systems understanding or know-why
    • Self-motivated creativity or care why1
  • The first three are different types of knowledge and the fourth refers to the knowledge creation process.

1. Gibbert et al (2000) pp 33.

c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies siemens ag14
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management

c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies siemens ag15
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Siemens ICN - Global Knowledge Management

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COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Siemens ICN: Global Knowledge Management

– Key Lessons

  • The ShareNet attempts to demonstrate ‘the importance of finding the right balance between IT solutions for capturing explicit codified knowledge and leaving enough room to allow direct personal exchange of more implicit forms of knowledge.’
  • The ICN ShareNet Quality Assurance and Reward Systems was important for motivating the workers to participate in the knowledge management initiatives.The Reward System is an essential complement to the structural arrangements that facilitate knowledge sharing and an organisational culture that supports such an initiative.
c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies siemens ag17
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Siemens ICN: Global Knowledge Management – Key Lessons

  • For a global organisation knowledge sharing has to be facilitated within and between the constituent national organisations, and between different market stages.
  • Telecommunication solutions for a given country have to address the level of economic development of the country and the level of de-regulation of the markets in general and telecomms markets in particular.
c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies siemens ag18
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Siemens ICN: Global Knowledge Management – The 2001 Aftermath

Focus was on high-bandwidth solutions and for infrastructure to support it.

However, the customers did not understand/appreciate/like broadband communications system  the market collapsed

Siemens was restructured and the Share Net Unit was absorbed in to a new Competence and Knowledge Management Division.

c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies siemens ag19
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Siemens ICN: Global Knowledge Management – The 2001 Aftermath

Share Net System was focused on sales and marketing. This was important to deal with new deregulated markets, as the sales/marketing knowledge was largely based on regulated markets.

Share Net was extended to help the R&D Division of Siemens of ICN. Why?

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COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Siemens ICN: Global Knowledge Management – The 2001 Aftermath

Share Net was extended to help the R&D Division of Siemens of ICN. Why?

The time-to-market a good idea was long within Siemens ICN. Can Share Net help in doing that?

Perhaps, but only after the system was resturctured to take into account the business of R&D which is not the same as the business of Sales and Marketing.

c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies siemens ag21
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

SiemensIndustrialServices: Know-how exchange1

  • Siemens Industrial Services provide services for the electrical and electronic equipment users, like engineering, installation, maintenance and repair.
  • Sales representatives and service technicians who respectively secure and work on service contracts have accumulated a significant depth of experience – largely tacit knowledge of large engineering systems.
  • There is explicit knowledge of geography, people, and engineering artefacts.
c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies siemens ag22
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

SiemensIndustrialServices: Know-how exchange

  • For Siemens Industrial Services this tacit and explicit knowledge is crucial in securing new contracts and for executing existing contracts.
  • There is significant duplication of effort when this knowledge is not recorded: each contract is prepared and executed ab intio.
  • SiemensIndustrialServices created a knowledge exchange for recording and re-using knowledge.
c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies siemens ag23
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

SiemensIndustrialServices: Know-how exchange

  • The expertise and know–how within Siemens Industrial Services is multi-faceted:
    • Industrial Sector
    • Products and Systems
    • Tools
    • Technology
  • The expertise and know-how may be with a person or a group within a regional Siemens company or within collaborating organisations.
  • Free exchange of knowledge – freely given and received without any cost.
c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies siemens ag24
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

SiemensIndustrialServices: Know-how exchange

  • Objectives and Aims
  • Know-How Exchange is expected to become virtual Centre of Excellence, available to every employee at Siemens Industrial Services, and possibly even further afield.
  • By connecting geographically distributed service offices, the know-how-transfer process, supported by the Know-How Exchange, may provide a competitive advantage
  • The introduction of a specific tool for know-how transfer should not impose an additional barrier for the users.A user-friendly tool and a reliable support team could avoid this.
c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies siemens ag25
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

SiemensIndustrialServices: Know-how exchange

  • Know-how Exchange:
    • Available through the SIS Intranet
    • Search and retrieval facilities
    • Multi-lingual user interface
    • Maintenance Facilities
c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies siemens ag26
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

SiemensIndustrialServices: Know-how exchange

  • Know-how Exchange comprises
    • An extensive database of contracts and service notes compiled by sales representatives and service engineers
    • ‘References’ related to the description and the use of Siemens products
    • ‘Yellow’ Pages comprising details of experts within SIS, with elaborations on their qualifications and competencies.
  • Know-how Exchange being used by
    • 1200 users per month searching through 5500 know-how entries and 1500 references1

1D’Oosterlink, Marc., Freitag, Hartmut., & Graff, Joachim. (2000). Figure 9 caption, pp 49.

c omputer based k nowledge m anagement case studies siemens ag27
COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

SiemensIndustrialServices: Know-how exchange

‘Employees at SIS were ‘prodded, cajoled and motivated through newsletters, the Intranet and employee newspaper, through personal e-mails, congresses and conferences to get involved by contributing their know how to’ the Exchange (D’Oosterlink, Freitag, Hartmut., & Graff, 2000:43-44).

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Benefits

Document

Transfer

Innovate

Evaluate

Discuss

Collaborate

Publish

Search

Share

COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

SiemensIndustrialServices: Know-how exchange

Competence

Experience

Knowledge

Location A

Location B

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COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

SiemensIndustrialServices: Know-how exchange

‘An area that certainly warrants attention now, and will do so increasingly in the future, is the standardising and structuring of the knowledge shared on the database. A certain level of knowledge quality is necessary to ensure its utility. Who will perform this gate-keeping task and what criteria should be used? These are questions that must still be answered if this tool is going to realise its full potential.’(D’Oosterlink, Freitag, Hartmut., & Graff, 2000:52, my emphasis).

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COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Siemens Business Services: Standardized KM

Siemens Business Services is a core business-driven unit within Siemens focussing exclusively on services.

SBS is a vendor of ‘full service’, consulting services, systems integration, operational services and outsourcing on an international level.

Ramhorst, Dirk. (2000) ‘A guided tour through the Siemens Business Services Knowledge Management Framework.’ In (Eds) Tom Davenport and Gilbert Probst.

pp 126-140.

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COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Siemens Business Services: Standardized KM

  • Aims and Objectives
  • Integrate competencies and experiences from the technical/engineering business with management consultancy within SBS
  • Cope with rapid and strong organisational growth: as many as one in three employees were new employees.
  • Deal with the results of a major merger in 1990’s between Siemens and Nixdorf and subsequently in 1995 a demerger of core units in SiemensNixdorf Informationssyteme AG.
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COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Siemens Business Services: Standardized KM

  • Standardised KM requires Knowledge Brokers: These Brokers are human search engines that can be accessed whenever anyone in the organisation has a question about a specialist area, or is looking for an expert.
  • The Knowledge Broker is responsible for:
    • The classification, categorisation, storage and management of the relevant information and knowledge (librarian)
    • Co-ordinating or doing research
    • Monitoring the results of expert forums
    • Acting as a change agent for further cultural development
    • Introducing new platforms or functions.
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COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Siemens Business Services: Standardized KM

  • Knowledge Maps are an important content-related element of SBS KM.
  • Knowledge Maps arethe graphic display of knowledge flows and competency networks.
  • Different colours describe various competency implementations, while connectors show the intensity of the knowledge flows. The size of these networks is shown, the interfaces to partners and, for example, schools and special, possibly critical, node points in the organisation.
  • Knowledge maps have made the implementation of expert networks (Communities of Practice) in organisations possible.

Ramhorst, D. (2000) pp 135.

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COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Siemens Business Services: Standardized KM

The technologies used form KM within SBS can be described in four clusters:

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Gibbert, Michael., and Krause, Hartmut. (2000) ‘Practice Exchange in a Best Practice Marketplace’. In (Eds) Tom Davenportand Gilbert Probst. pp 68-84.

COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Siemens Medical Services: Sharing Best Practice

  • The transfer of existing knowledge is referred to as the sharing of ‘best practices’.
  • Sometimes using ‘best practice’ is an antidote to R&D that may lead to the creation of new knowledge which, in effect, may not be as new as the inventors may like it to be.
  • Siemens Medical Services created a Best Practice Sharing Marketplace.
  • ‘In this marketplace, through the economics of supply and demand, best practices within Siemens could be identified and leveraged.’ (Gibbert & Hartmut 2000:69).
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COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Siemens Medical Services: Sharing Best Practice

Barriers to the internal transfer of knowledge:

Personal Barriers

Collective Barriers

Structural Barriers

Political/Cultural Barriers

These barriers may be scaled/overcome by

Information Technology solutions

Networks or organisational solutions

Corporate Solutions

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COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Siemens Medical Services: Sharing Best Practice

Personal barriers

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COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Siemens Medical Services: Sharing Best Practice

Collective barriers

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COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Siemens Medical Services: Sharing Best Practice

Structural barriers

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COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Siemens Medical Services: Sharing Best Practice

Political/Cultural barriers

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COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Siemens Medical Services: Sharing Best Practice

  • Critical Factors in overcoming barriers and making Best Practice Sharing possible/practical
  • Developing employee networks among BP owners: knowledge workers and engineers
  • Exchanging Best Practice through a Martketplace
  • Engaging knowledge officers: Patrons and Sponsors
  • Mobilizing knowledge workers – incentives/rewards
  • Designing a content structure – a best practice landscape
  • Energizing support through knowledge engineers – facilitators and ‘Best Practice Office’.
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COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT –Case Studies: Siemens AG

Siemens Medical Services: Sharing Best Practice

  • Implementing the Best Practice Marketplace
  • ‘Recruiting Network’ – a pilot project with a view to establish a Best Practice Network.
  • Trading Best Practice – through pilot participants; proof of concept via successful implementations of the Networks; through an Intranet-based database system; by validating Best Practice
  • Intranet-based ‘Best Practice’ MarketPlace data base.
  • Collecting Best Practice Data & Communicating with the employees:
    • Kick off meetings Introduction to the Heads of participating divisionsDivisional Workshops  Broadcasting the results (In-house journals, postcards, memos etc.
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COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENTCase Studies - Siemens AG

Mergers & Acquisitions Knowledge Exchange

Terminology

Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) typically involve an exchange of financial instruments, especially shares and money, for the company physical and intellectual assets.

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COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENTCase Studies - Siemens AG

Mergers & Acquisitions Knowledge Exchange

  • Terminology
  • Once the exchange is accomplished the two organisations, one merging or taking over another, have to deal with consolidation:
    • The possible differences in ways in which the people in each of the two organisations work with one another and work into their suppliers and clients. These differences are typically referred to as the differences between the cultures of the two organisations.
    • The different geographical locations of the two organisation particularly if the locations are across linguistic / national boundaries.
    • The various information and communication technology systems in the two organisations.
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COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENTCase Studies - Siemens AG

Mergers & Acquisitions Knowledge Exchange

Terminology

It has been reported that 4 out of 5 mergers fail to deliver adequate return to the share holder or meet the original objectives of the merger

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COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENTCase Studies - Siemens AG

Mergers & Acquisitions Knowledge Exchange

Terminology

Once the more concrete aspects of consolidation, e.g. exchange of financial instrument, legal instruments, physical movement of people, understanding / re-orientation of ICT systems, is over, then the knowledge assets have to be merged and when necessary pruned.

The consolidation of knowledge assets is of crucial importance of the so-called post closing management. The term ‘closing’ refers to the closure of the bulk of financial and legal transactions.

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COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENTCase Studies - Siemens AG

Mergers & Acquisitions Knowledge Exchange

  • Merger
  • Siemens Information and Communication Products (Germany) and Fujitsu Corp (Japan) combined or merged their PC, server and main frame business to form Fujitsu Siemens computers with headquarters in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
  • Demerger
    • Siemens Information and Communication Products sold
    • Siemens Nixdorf Retail and Banking systems - retail banking and point of sale terminals (itself a merger of Siemens GmBH and Nixdorff Information System in the early 1990’s)
    • Communications Cable Business (filter optic and other cables)
  • Joint venture
  • Siemens Information and Communication Mobile (Germany) and NEC (Japan) created Mobisphere (U/C)
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COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENTCase Studies - Siemens AG

Mergers & Acquisitions Knowledge Exchange

Terminology

Mergers and acquisitions:One important aspect of consolidation is to assess which of the assets are to be preserved and nurtured and which of the assets have to be sold off or otherwise disposed. The noun divestment is used which is rotted in the verb divest which in general language means ‘to deprive, as of rights or property; dispossess’.

The term divestment is probably the antonym of investment, which has as one of its meanings ‘Property or another possession acquired for future financial return or benefit’ and is rooted in the verb invest - ‘to commit (money or capital) in order to gain financial return’.

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COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENTCase Studies - Siemens AG

Mergers & Acquisitions Knowledge Exchange

Terminology

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COMPUTER-BASED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENTCase Studies - Siemens AG

Mergers & Acquisitions Knowledge Exchange

Terminology

MAKE is a network of distributed expertise.

The expertise, or the documented expertise was made available through an Intranet platform.

A common language for sharing knowledge across different areas of M&A expertise.

k nowledge m anagement
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

AFTERWORD

There is much discussion about the intellectual capital of large and small organisations amongst management scholars, sociologists, and in the emergent discipline of knowledge management. Intellectual capital is a term coined to distinguish this kind of wealth from material capital - the real-estate and financial instruments comprising an organisation.

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KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

REVISION

Case Studies

{Xerox; Honda, Canon}

Matsushita, APQC, Siemens (4)

British Petroleum, Microsoft.

Theory/Empirical Framework

Nonaka & Takeuchi

Cybernetics & Feedback: Agyris and others

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KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

REVISION

  • Themes:
  • Ownership, Management, Expertise
  • Learning Organisations  Feedback; Discovery; Observation; Teaching
  • Innovation and Change; Knowledge Spirals
  • Best Practice and Improvement
  • IT solutions for KM are only a part of the solution
  • KNOWLEDGE CONVERSION: People involved, tasks performed, technology used.
k nowledge m gmt s ystems
KNOWLEDGE MGMT. SYSTEMS

COURSEWORK

  • Case Study: Key points from a KM context – innovation, change, learning;
  • Relate to a framework (N+T, S-B, S-A)?
  • 4-5 Pages (Try more)
  • The use of technology in support of KM
  • WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT THE CASE STUDY?
  • Tabulate facts; analyse facts; give opinions
gap between advanced countries and samsung in the semiconductor industry
Gap Between Advanced Countries and Samsung in the Semiconductor industry

Development Time

Sample Shipment Time

technology and cooperation
Technology and Cooperation

A system supporting cooperative processes should provide its users with the following services, independent of their mutual spatial and / or temporal distance (the list is not exhaustive; see also (Agostini, De Michelis, and Grasso, 1997):

Recording all the events characterising a cooperative process together with the documents generated and exchanged in it, linking them in such a way as to reflect the history of which they are a part;

Recording the knowledge created by earning from past experiences, helping users to design and change the plans they can use to perform their activities and to enact them when needed;

Situating, in any moment, users in the appropriate context, making them accessible to knowledge about the cooperative process where they are performing.