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INTRODUCTION TO PHP/ mySQL I. FTSM Lab / May 2011. Goal. Provide the basic knowledge of PHP programming Explain how you can code and run PHP scripts Creating dynamic pages Basic database interactions – read, insert, update and delete data Basic session management PHP Application packages.

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introduction to php mysql i

INTRODUCTION TO PHP/mySQL I

FTSM Lab / May 2011

slide2
Goal
  • Provide the basic knowledge of PHP programming
    • Explain how you can code and run PHP scripts
    • Creating dynamic pages
    • Basic database interactions – read, insert, update and delete data
    • Basic session management
    • PHP Application packages
structure
Structure

HTML/

XHTML

PHP

Database

CSS

JavaScript

html javascript css
HTML/JavaScript/CSS
  • http://www.w3schools.com
  • HTML, JavaScript and CSS tutorials
what is php
What is PHP?
  • PHP = ‘Hypertext PreProcessor’
  • Originally created by Rasmus

Lerdorf in 1994

  • The main implementation of PHP

is now produced by The PHP Group

(de facto standard for PHP) - http://www.php.net/

  • Open-source (access to source code and free distribution right), server-side scripting language
webhosting
Webhosting
  • Webhosting information
wamp packages xampp
WAMP Packages - XAMPP
  • http://www.apachefriends.org/en/index.html
  • Version for Windows includes: Apache, MySQL, PHP, Perl, phpMyAdmin, JpGraph, FileZilla FTP Server, SQLite etc.
wamp packages wampserver
WAMP Packages - WAMPServer
  • http://www.wampserver.com/en/
  • Version for Windows includes: Apache, PHP, Mysql (version 64 and 32 bits), PhpMyadmin, SQLBuddy, XDebug, webGrind, XDC
php scripts
PHP Scripts

Basic syntaxes, data types, variable, control structures, arrays, function

slide13

PHP

VARIABLES

BASIC SYNTAX

DATA TYPE

CONTROL STATEMENTS

FUNCTION

DATABASE

CONNECT/ READ

INSERT

UPDATE

DELETE

SESSION

PHP PACKAGES

php code
PHP code
  • Structurally similar to C/C++
  • All PHP statements end with a semi-colon
  • Each PHP script must be enclosed in the reserved PHP tag

<?php

…?>

php code comments
PHP code - comments
  • Standard C, C++, and shell comment symbols

// C++ and Java-style comment

# Shell-style comments

/* C-style comments

These can span multiple lines */

php code output
PHP code - output
  • Use ‘echo’ or ‘print’
  • Strings in single quotes (‘ ’) are not interpreted or evaluated by PHP

<?php

$nilai= 25; // Numerical variable$ayat= “Hello”; // String variable

echo $ayat; // Outputs Hello

echo $nilai, $ayat; // Outputs 25Hello

echo “5x5=”,$nilai; // Outputs 5x5=25

echo “5x5=$nilai”; // Outputs 5x5=25echo ‘5x5=$nilai’; // Outputs 5x5=$nilai

?>

php escape character
PHP – escape character
  • If the string has a set of double quotation marks that must remain visible, use the \ [backslash] before the quotation marks to ignore and display them.

<?php

$jab=“\”PHP\””;

print $jab; //”PHP”

?>

php code variables
PHP code - variables
  • PHP variables must begin with a “$” sign
  • Case-sensitive ($var != $VAR != $vAr)
  • Global and locally-scoped variables
    • Global variables can be used anywhere
    • Local variables restricted to a function or class
  • Certain variable names reserved by PHP
    • Form variables ($_POST, $_GET)
    • Server variables ($_SERVER)
php code variables1
PHP code – variables

<?php

$nilai= 25; //Numerical variable$ayat= “Hello”; //String variable

$nilai= ($nilai* 7); //Multiplies variable nilai by 7

?>

php code operations
PHP code - operations

<?php

$a=30;

$b=5;

$total=$a+$b;

print $total; //35

print “<p>Jumlahialah $total</p>”;

// Jumlahialah 35

print $a-$b; //25

print $a*$b; //150

print $a/$b; //6

print $a+=$b; //35

print $a%$b; //0

?>

php code strings function
PHP code – strings function
  • Use a period to join strings into one.

<?php

$string1=“Hello”;

$string2=“PHP”;

$string3=$string1 . “ ” . $string2;

print $string3; //Hello PHP

?>

php control statements
PHP – Control Statements
  • Control structures similar with JavaScript/C++
    • if, elseif, else
    • switch, case
    • while
    • for
    • foreach
php if elseif else
PHP - if, elseif, else

<?php

$markah = 90;

if ($markah >= 80)

echo “Lulus dengancemerlang";elseif ($markah >= 40)   echo “Lulus";else   echo “Gagal";

?>

php control switch
PHP control – switch

switch ($jantina){ case “L”:   echo “Lelaki";   break; case “P”:   echo “Perempuan";   break; default:   echo “Tiada input jantina"; }…

php control while loops
PHP control – while loops

<?php

$nombor = 1;

while ($nombor!=10){

print “Bilangan $nombor”;

$nombor++;

}

?>

php control for loops
PHP control – for loops

<?php

for ($n = 1; $n<=10; $n++){

print “Bilangan $n”;

}

?>

php control foreach loops
PHP control – foreach loops

<?php

$numbers = array("one","two","three");

foreach ($numbers as $value) { echo $value . "<br />";  }

?>

php arrays
PHP arrays
  • Three kind of arrays:
    • Numeric array - An array with a numeric index
    • Associative array - An array where each ID key is associated with a value
    • Multidimensional array - An array containing one or more arrays
php numeric arrays
PHP – numeric arrays

<?php

//numeric array

$cars = array("Saab","Volvo","BMW",“Ford");

echo $cars[2]; //BMW

?>

php associative arrays
PHP – associative arrays

<?php

//associative array

$umur = array ("Raju"=>32, "Gopal"=>34, "Samy" => 36); //same as $umur[‘Raju’]=32…

echo $umur[‘Gopal’]; //34

?>

php multi dimensional arrays
PHP - multi dimensional arrays

<?php

//multidimensional array

$kump = array ("Merah"=> array ("Ali", "Raju", "Joan"), "Biru"=> array ("Abu", "Jason", "Lin"), "Hijau" => array ("David", "Jim", "Mary");

echo $kump [‘Merah’][2]; //Joan

echo $kump [‘Hijau’][0]; //David

?>

php array functions
PHP array functions
  • array_push() – adds element/s to an array

<?php

$a=array("Dog","Cat");array_push($a,"Horse","Bird");print_r($a);

/*Array ([0]=>Dog [1]=>Cat [2]=>Horse [3]=>Bird) */

?>

php array functions1
PHP array functions
  • array_pop() – deletes last element in an array

<?php

$a=array("Dog","Cat","Horse");array_pop($a);print_r($a);

// Array ([0]=>Dog [1]=>Cat)

?>

php array functions2
PHP array functions
  • unset() – destroy a variable

$array = array(0, 1, 2, 3);

unset($array[2]);

/* array(3) {

[0]=>int(0)

[1]=>int(1)

[3]=>int(3)

} */

php functions
PHP - functions
  • Functions MUST be defined before they can be called
  • Function headers are of the format
    • function function_name ($var1, $var2…){
    • }
  • Function names are not case sensitive
php functions1
PHP - functions

<?php

// This is a function

function darab($arg1, $arg2){

$arg3 = $arg1 * $arg2;

return $arg3;

}

echo darab(12,3); // 36

?>

php using external files
PHP - Using external files
  • Using external files for:
    • HTML codes
    • Structure – template files like

headers, footers

    • Functions – separate file to

store all functions

    • Config – separate configuration

settings in different file

php include and require
PHP – include and require
  • Four functions:
    • include()
    • include_once()
    • require()
    • require_once()

Generates warnings when the function doesn’t work

Generates errors and halts scripts when the function doesn’t work

php include
PHP - include
  • Using “include” to include external files

<?php

include “header.php”

Include “tarikh.php”

include “menubar.php”

?>

<?php

print “Tarikhhariiniialah $date2”;

?>

php references
PHP References
  • http://www.php.net <- php home page
  • http://www.php.net/downloads <- php download page
  • http://www.php.net/manual/en/install.windows.php <- php installation manual
  • http://www.w3schools.com/php/default.asp <-php online tutorial
database and sql
Database and SQL

SQL, MySQL, phpMyAdmin, creating database and tables

slide42
SQL
  • SQL – Structured Query Language
  • SQL can be used to access and manipulate databases

SELECT * FROM pelajar

SELECT * FROM pelajar

WHERE NoMatrik=‘A123456’

sql queries
SQL Queries
  • Query database for specific information and have a recordset returned from table

SELECT nama FROM pelajar

sql keywords
SQL Keywords
  • SELECT – select from tables
  • FROM – specifies tables
  • WHERE – specifies criteria
  • INSERT – inserts data into table
  • UPDATE – updates data in table
  • DELETE – deletes data in table
  • CREATE – create new table
  • DROP – delete existing table
sql keywords usage
SQL Keywords Usage

SELECT * FROM pelajar

Output: select all columns from table pelajar

SELECT nama, nomatrik FROM pelajar

Output: select columns nama and nomatrik from table pelajar

SELECT nama, nomatrik FROM pelajar

WHERE nomatrik=‘A12345’

Output: select columns nama, nomatrik from table pelajar where row nomatrik equals ‘A12345’

sql keywords usage1
SQL Keywords Usage

INSERT INTO pelajar (nomatrik, nama, jabatan, kumpulan)

VALUES (‘A12365’, ‘Hashim’, ‘4’, ‘9’)

Action: insert specified value to table pelajar, creating new row

DELETE FROM pelajar

WHERE nomatrik=‘A12369’

Action: select row from table pelajar where nomatrik as specified and delete the row

sql keywords usage2
SQL Keywords Usage

UPDATE pelajar

SET nama = ‘Hisham’

WHERE nama = ‘Hashim’ AND nomatrik = ‘A12365’

Action: update specified row to table pelajar

mysql
MySQL
  • MySQL - "My Structured Query Language“
    • Created by Michael Widenius from TcX (Sweden) in 1994
    • Open-source, relational database management system
    • MySQL is used in web applications and acts as the database component of the WAMP/LAMP
    • Used in free software projects (e.g. WordPress, Joomla)
mysql and wamp lamp
MySQL and WAMP/LAMP
  • Download at www.mysql.com
mysql interfaces
MySQL Interfaces
  • Interfaces to manage and browse database easily
    • phpMyAdmin
    • heidiSQL
    • MySQL-Front
    • SQLyog
creating database
Creating Database

CREATE DATABASE databasename

creating tables
Creating Tables
  • Some of MySQL data types:
creating tables1
Creating Tables
  • Choose a suitable name and create table
  • Identify columns names
  • Identify data types
  • Identify suitable MySQL data type
  • Identify suitable length
creating tables2
Creating Tables
  • Creating table for a guestbook application
creating tables3
Creating Tables
  • Identifying column general data type
php and mysql
PHP and MySQL

Read, insert, update and delete data using PHP

slide61

CREATE CONNECTION

DELETE DATA

INSERT DATA

READ DATA

UPDATE DATA

CLOSE CONNECTION

php creating closing connection
PHP Creating & Closing Connection
  • Use mysql_connect() and mysql_close()

$con = mysql_connect(servername, username, password);

if (!$con) {

die('Could not connect: ' . mysql_error());

}…

mysql_close($con);

php selecting database
PHP Selecting Database
  • Use mysql_select_db()

$con = mysql_connect (servername, username, password);

mysql_select_db (databasename, $con);

php displaying data
PHP Displaying data
  • Use mysql_query() to run SQL
  • The return result are usually in array form

$result = mysql_query ("SELECT * FROM guestbook");while($row = mysql_fetch_array ($result)) {

echo $row[‘NAMA'] . “-" . $row[‘EMAIL'] . ”-” . row[‘TARIKH'] . “-" . $row[‘KOMEN'];  }

php inserting data
PHP Inserting data
  • Use mysql_query()

//run querymysql_query("INSERT INTO guestbook

(ID, NAMA, EMAIL, TARIKH, KOMEN) VALUES

(5, ‘Jason', ‘jason@gmail.com‘, NOW(), ‘Website yang bagus!’)");…

php inserting data1
PHP Inserting data

//Create query

$qry = "INSERT INTO guestbook (ID, NAMA, EMAIL, TARIKH, KOMEN)

VALUES (5, ‘Jason', ‘jason@gmail.com‘, NOW(), ‘Website yang bagus!’)”;

//Run querymysql_query($qry);…

php inserting data from form2
PHP Inserting data from Form

…  $sql="INSERT INTO guestbook (NAMA, EMAIL, TARIKH, KOMEN)VALUES ('$_POST[nama]', '$_POST[email]‘, '$_POST[tarikh]‘, '$_POST[komen]')";…

php displaying data in table
PHP Displaying data in table

…echo "<table>"; while($row = mysql_fetch_array($result)) {

echo "<tr>";

echo "<td>" . $row[‘NAMA'] . "</td>";

echo "<td>" . $row[‘EMAIL'] . "</td>";

echo "<td>" . $row[‘TARIKH'] . "</td>";

echo "<td>" . $row[‘KOMEN'] . "</td>";

echo "</tr>";   }

echo "</table>"; …

php updating data
PHP Updating data
  • Use UPDATE /SET /WHERE to update data

mysql_query (“UPDATE guestbook SET EMAIL = ‘simon_new@yahoo.com’ WHERE NAMA = ‘Simon‘ ");  }

php deleting data
PHP Deleting data
  • Use DELETE FROM /WHERE to delete data from database

…mysql_query (“DELETE FROM guestbook WHERE Nama = ‘Simon‘ ");…

update delete in form
Update/Delete in Form
  • Modify display table form to incorporate update/delete functions

//make a link at the end of each table row for UPDATE and DELETE

echo “<td>”;

echo "<a href='delete.php?cmd=delete&id=$id‘>Delete</a>";

echo “</td><td>”;

echo "<a href=‘update.php?&id=$id‘>Delete</a>";

echo "<br>";

if($_GET["cmd"]=="delete") {

}

http requests
HTTP Requests
  • GET
    • Gets/retrieves information from server (e.g retrieve an image, fetch search results)
    • Sends information as part of URL (visible, 2048 chars limit)
    • Cached, bookmark-able
  • POST
    • Posts/sends data (e.g login information, post form data)
    • Submitted data is hidden (invisible)
    • Non-cached, non-bookmark-able
sessions
Sessions
  • Using session identifier in server to locate and store user data
  • Advantage over cookies:
    • More secure – all data stored in server
    • Not browser/computer dependent – some users reject cookies/turn off
    • Store more data than cookie
  • Use session_start() and $_SESSION[variable]
sessions1
Sessions

session_start();

If (isset($_SESSION[‘user_id’])){

//login process

session_start();

$_SESSION[‘user_id’] = A11201;

//reset session array

$_SESSION = array();

//delete session

session_destroy();

php application packages
PHP Application Packages

Installing packages, customizing packages

php packages
PHP packages
  • Useful and easy to install PHP applications
    • Phpmyadmin
    • Joomla
    • modx
    • phpBB
    • Wordpress
    • Mediawiki
    • zend
phpmyadmin1
phpMyadmin
  • MySQL interface
  • Deployment:
    • Download from site
    • Unzip to web document

root

joomla
Joomla
  • Multi-user CMS
  • Deployment:
    • Download and unzip in

web document root

    • Launch install script
slide83
modx
  • Multi-user CMS
phpbb
phpBB
  • Bulletin board
wordpress
Wordpress
  • Blogging application - http://www.wordpress.org
mediawiki
MediaWiki
  • Wiki - http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/MediaWiki
slide87
Zend
  • http://framework.zend.com