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THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE A guide for GCSE students PowerPoint Presentation
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THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE A guide for GCSE students

THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE A guide for GCSE students

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THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE A guide for GCSE students

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  1. THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE A guide for GCSE students 2010 SPECIFICATIONS KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING

  2. THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE INTRODUCTION This Powerpoint show is one of several produced to help students understand selected GCSE Chemistry topics. It is based on the requirements of the AQA specification but is suitable for other examination boards. Individual students may use the material at home for revision purposes and it can also prove useful for classroom teaching with an interactive white board. Accompanying notes on this, and the full range of AS and A2 Chemistry topics, are available from the KNOCKHARDY WEBSITE at... www.knockhardy.org.uk All diagrams, photographs and any animations in this Powerpoint are original and created by Jonathan Hopton. Permission must be obtained for their use in any work that is distributed for financial gain.

  3. THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE • CONTENTS • Preparatory work • Today’s atmosphere • Fractional distillation of air • Composition of air – laboratory experiment • How the atmosphere has changed over time • The Miller-Urey experiment • Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

  4. THE ATMOSPHERE PREPARATORY WORK

  5. THE ATMOSPHERE PREPARATORY WORK Arrange the following gases into ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS and MIXTURES NITROGEN CARBON DIOXIDE AMMONIA OXYGEN WATER (VAPOUR) ARGON AIR HYDROGEN

  6. THE ATMOSPHERE PREPARATORY WORK Arrange the following gases into ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS and MIXTURES ELEMENTS COMPOUNDS MIXTURES NITROGEN AIR CARBON DIOXIDE OXYGEN AMMONIA ARGON WATER (VAPOUR) HYDROGEN

  7. THE ATMOSPHERE PREPARATORY WORK Arrange the following into ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS and MIXTURES

  8. THE ATMOSPHERE PREPARATORY WORK Arrange the following into ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS and MIXTURES ELEMENTS COMPOUNDS MIXTURES

  9. THE ATMOSPHERE PREPARATORY WORK All these gases have been in the earth’s atmosphere. How many of them… were there originally / are there now? NITROGEN CARBON DIOXIDE AMMONIA WATER VAPOUR OXYGEN HELIUM OZONE ARGON HYDROGEN METHANE

  10. THE ATMOSPHERE PREPARATORY WORK All these gases have been in the earth’s atmosphere. How many of them… were there originally / are there now? PRESENT ORIGINAL NITROGEN OXYGEN CARBON DIOXIDE WATER VAPOUR CARBON DIOXIDE AMMONIA HELIUM ARGON METHANE WATER VAPOUR OZONE

  11. THE ATMOSPHERE PREPARATORY WORK Which of the following gases are classed as atmospheric pollutants? NITROGEN OXYGEN CARBON DIOXIDE CARBON MONOXIDE ARGON SULPHUR DIOXIDE WATER VAPOUR NITROGEN MONOXIDE

  12. THE ATMOSPHERE PREPARATORY WORK Which of the following gases are classed as atmospheric pollutants? NON-POLLUTANTS POLLUTANTS NITROGEN CARBON MONOXIDE OXYGEN SULPHUR DIOXIDE CARBON DIOXIDE NITROGEN MONOXIDE ARGON WATER VAPOUR

  13. THE ATMOSPHERE TODAY THE EARTH IS COVERED BY A THIN LAYER OF ATMOSPHERE MADE UP OF A MIXTURE OF GASES

  14. THE ATMOSPHERE TODAY THE MOST COMMON GASES IN THE ATMOSPHERE ARE

  15. THE ATMOSPHERE TODAY THE MOST COMMON GASES IN THE ATMOSPHERE ARE NITROGEN

  16. THE ATMOSPHERE TODAY THE MOST COMMON GASES IN THE ATMOSPHERE ARE OXYGEN NITROGEN

  17. THE ATMOSPHERE TODAY THE MOST COMMON GASES IN THE ATMOSPHERE ARE OTHER GASES (MOSTLY ARGON) OXYGEN NITROGEN ESTIMATE THE PERCENTAGES

  18. THE ATMOSPHERE TODAY THE MOST COMMON GASES IN THE ATMOSPHERE ARE OTHER GASES (MOSTLY ARGON) OXYGEN 1% 21% 78% NITROGEN

  19. ATMOSPHERIC GASES - SUMMARY Air is a mixture of various gases

  20. ATMOSPHERIC GASES - SUMMARY Air is a mixture of various gases Its composition can vary depending on the environment. If one ignores water vapour 0% - 4% pollutants (variable)

  21. ATMOSPHERIC GASES - SUMMARY Air is a mixture of various gases Its composition can vary depending on the environment. If one ignores water vapour 0% - 4% pollutants (variable) the main constituents are nitrogen 78% oxygen 21% noble gases* 1% carbon dioxide 0.03% * mostly argon but with some helium, neon, krypton and xenon The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally distilled to provide a source of raw materials used in a variety of Industrial processes.

  22. FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR

  23. FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally distilled to provide useful raw materials used in industrial processes.

  24. FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally distilled to provide useful raw materials used in industrial processes. Air Air is filtered to remove dust Water vapour condenses, and is removed using absorbent filters Carbon dioxide freezes at –79ºC, and is removed The remaining air is cooled in stages to –200°C where it is a liquid The liquid is then allowed to warm up Nitrogen boils off first at –196ºC Oxygen boils off at –183ºC

  25. FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally distilled to provide useful raw materials used in industrial processes. Air is filtered to remove dust Water vapour condenses, and is removed using absorbent filters Carbon dioxide freezes at –79ºC, and is removed The remaining air is cooled in stages to –200°C where it is a liquid The liquid is then allowed to warm up Nitrogen boils off first at –196ºC Oxygen boils off at –183ºC

  26. FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally distilled to provide useful raw materials used in industrial processes. CO2 Air is filtered to remove dust Water vapour condenses, and is removed using absorbent filters Carbon dioxide freezes at –79ºC, and is removed The remaining air is cooled in stages to –200°C where it is a liquid The liquid is then allowed to warm up Nitrogen boils off first at –196ºC Oxygen boils off at –183ºC

  27. FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally distilled to provide useful raw materials used in industrial processes. Air is filtered to remove dust Water vapour condenses, and is removed using absorbent filters Carbon dioxide freezes at –79ºC, and is removed The remaining air is cooled in stages to –200°C where it is a liquid The liquid is then allowed to warm up Nitrogen boils off first at –196ºC Oxygen boils off at –183ºC

  28. FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally distilled to provide useful raw materials used in industrial processes. Air is filtered to remove dust Water vapour condenses, and is removed using absorbent filters Carbon dioxide freezes at –79ºC, and is removed The remaining air is cooled in stages to –200°C where it is a liquid The liquid is then allowed to warm up Nitrogen boils off first at –196ºC Oxygen boils off at –183ºC

  29. FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally distilled to provide useful raw materials used in industrial processes. N2 Air is filtered to remove dust Water vapour condenses, and is removed using absorbent filters Carbon dioxide freezes at –79ºC, and is removed The remaining air is cooled in stages to –200°C where it is a liquid The liquid is then allowed to warm up Nitrogen boils off first at –196ºC Oxygen boils off at –183ºC

  30. FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally distilled to provide useful raw materials used in industrial processes. O2 Air is filtered to remove dust Water vapour condenses, and is removed using absorbent filters Carbon dioxide freezes at –79ºC, and is removed The remaining air is cooled in stages to –200°C where it is a liquid The liquid is then allowed to warm up Nitrogen boils off first at –196ºC Oxygen boils off at –183ºC

  31. FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally distilled to provide useful raw materials used in industrial processes. CO2 O2 N2 Air Air is filtered to remove dust Water vapour condenses, and is removed using absorbent filters Carbon dioxide freezes at –79ºC, and is removed The remaining air is cooled in stages to –200°C where it is a liquid The liquid is then allowed to warm up Nitrogen boils off first at –196ºC Oxygen boils off at –183ºC Argon boils off at -186ºC

  32. USES OF THE COMPONENTS OF AIR OXYGEN steel making oxy-acetylene welding breathing equipment aerating sewage NITROGEN inert atmosphere for food – stops it going ‘off’ liquid nitrogen is used for cooling medical tissue ARGON inert atmosphere for light bulbs

  33. COMPOSITION OF AIR - LABORATORY EXPERIMENT

  34. COMPOSITION OF AIR - LABORATORY EXPERIMENT Place copper turnings in a silica tube and fill one of the syringes with air. Heat the copper and push the air repeatedly over it. Continue until the volume is constant. The pinkish solid turns black and the volume of air decreases. THE ANIMATION WILL START SOON The copper reacts with about 20% of air, OXYGEN, to produce a new substance. The remaining, unreactive, 80% is mostly NITROGEN.

  35. THE ATMOSPHERE ORIGIN

  36. THE ATMOSPHERE ORIGIN During the first billion years of the earth’s existence, there was intense volcanic activity which released… GASES - this formed the original atmosphere WATER VAPOUR - which eventually condensed to form oceans

  37. THE ATMOSPHERE ORIGIN During the first billion years of the earth’s existence, there was intense volcanic activity which released… GASES - this formed the original atmosphere WATER VAPOUR - which eventually condensed to form oceans The atmosphere was probably... mainlyCARBON DIOXIDE some WATERVAPOUR small amounts ofMETHANE small amounts ofAMMONIA Since then it has changed considerably

  38. THE ATMOSPHERE 1 Theearth was molten Any atmosphere burned away 1 4½ 4 3 2 1 0 BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO

  39. THE ATMOSPHERE 2 Volcanic activity CARBON DIOXIDE plus STEAM and a little METHANE and AMMONIA (A bit like Mars or Venus today) 1 2 4½ 4 3 2 1 0 BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO

  40. THE ATMOSPHERE 3 Theearth cooled WATER VAPOUR condensed to form the oceans. 1 2 3 4½ 4 3 2 1 0 BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO

  41. THE ATMOSPHERE 4 Plants began to evolve; PHOTOSYNTHESIS Atmosphere became ‘polluted’ with OXYGEN 1 2 3 4 4½ 4 3 2 1 0 BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO

  42. THE ATMOSPHERE 5 CO2 dissolved in oceans forming carbonates and also got ‘locked up’ in sedimentary rocks and fossils fuels CARBON DIOXIDE levels went down 1 2 3 4 5 4½ 4 3 2 1 0 BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO

  43. THE ATMOSPHERE 6 Methane and ammonia reacted with oxygen NITROGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE were produced 1 2 3 4 5 6 4½ 4 3 2 1 0 BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO

  44. THE ATMOSPHERE 7 Ammonia converted to nitrates by bacteria More NITROGEN produced and ammonia levels drop 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4½ 4 3 2 1 0 BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO

  45. THE ATMOSPHERE 8 SOME OXYGEN TURNED INTO TO OZONE WHICH FILTERED OUT HARMFUL UV RAYS AND ALLOWED MORE ORGANISMS TO EVOLVE. Small decrease in OXYGEN; OZONE layer formed 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 4½ 4 3 2 1 0 BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO

  46. THE ATMOSPHERE 9 Today’s atmosphere NITROGEN 78% 4/5 OXYGEN 21% 1/5 + NOBLE GASES CARBON DIOXIDE WATER VAPOUR 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 4½ 4 3 2 1 0 BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO

  47. THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT (1952)

  48. THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT (1952) Two scientists, Miller and Urey, tried to recreate the conditions which may might have occurred around 3 billion years ago.

  49. THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT (1952) Two scientists, Miller and Urey, tried to recreate the conditions which may might have occurred around 3 billion years ago. They mixed water vapour with ammonia, methane and hydrogen and passed electric sparks (to represent lightning) through the gases.

  50. THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT (1952) Two scientists, Miller and Urey, tried to recreate the conditions which may might have occurred around 3 billion years ago. They mixed water vapour with ammonia, methane and hydrogen and passed electric sparks (to represent lightning) through the gases. When they analysed the mixture they found that many carbon-based compounds had formed inside the flask. Some compounds were amino acids which can be built into proteins.