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THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE A guide for GCSE students. 2010 SPECIFICATIONS. KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING. THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE. INTRODUCTION

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slide1

THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE

A guide for GCSE students

2010 SPECIFICATIONS

KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING

slide2

THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE

INTRODUCTION

This Powerpoint show is one of several produced to help students understand selected GCSE Chemistry topics. It is based on the requirements of the AQA specification but is suitable for other examination boards.

Individual students may use the material at home for revision purposes and it can also prove useful for classroom teaching with an interactive white board.

Accompanying notes on this, and the full range of AS and A2 Chemistry topics, are available from the KNOCKHARDY WEBSITE at...

www.knockhardy.org.uk

All diagrams, photographs and any animations in this Powerpoint are original and created by Jonathan Hopton. Permission must be obtained for their use in any work that is distributed for financial gain.

slide3

THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE

  • CONTENTS
  • Preparatory work
  • Today’s atmosphere
  • Fractional distillation of air
  • Composition of air – laboratory experiment
  • How the atmosphere has changed over time
  • The Miller-Urey experiment
  • Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
slide4

THE ATMOSPHERE

PREPARATORY WORK

slide5

THE ATMOSPHERE

PREPARATORY WORK

Arrange the following gases into ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS and MIXTURES

NITROGEN

CARBON DIOXIDE

AMMONIA

OXYGEN

WATER (VAPOUR)

ARGON

AIR

HYDROGEN

slide6

THE ATMOSPHERE

PREPARATORY WORK

Arrange the following gases into ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS and MIXTURES

ELEMENTS COMPOUNDS MIXTURES

NITROGEN

AIR

CARBON DIOXIDE

OXYGEN

AMMONIA

ARGON

WATER (VAPOUR)

HYDROGEN

slide7

THE ATMOSPHERE

PREPARATORY WORK

Arrange the following into ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS and MIXTURES

slide8

THE ATMOSPHERE

PREPARATORY WORK

Arrange the following into ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS and MIXTURES

ELEMENTS COMPOUNDS MIXTURES

slide9

THE ATMOSPHERE

PREPARATORY WORK

All these gases have been in the earth’s atmosphere.

How many of them… were there originally / are there now?

NITROGEN

CARBON DIOXIDE

AMMONIA

WATER VAPOUR

OXYGEN

HELIUM

OZONE

ARGON

HYDROGEN

METHANE

slide10

THE ATMOSPHERE

PREPARATORY WORK

All these gases have been in the earth’s atmosphere.

How many of them… were there originally / are there now?

PRESENT

ORIGINAL

NITROGEN

OXYGEN

CARBON DIOXIDE

WATER VAPOUR

CARBON DIOXIDE

AMMONIA

HELIUM

ARGON

METHANE

WATER VAPOUR

OZONE

slide11

THE ATMOSPHERE

PREPARATORY WORK

Which of the following gases are classed as atmospheric pollutants?

NITROGEN

OXYGEN

CARBON DIOXIDE

CARBON MONOXIDE

ARGON

SULPHUR DIOXIDE

WATER VAPOUR

NITROGEN MONOXIDE

slide12

THE ATMOSPHERE

PREPARATORY WORK

Which of the following gases are classed as atmospheric pollutants?

NON-POLLUTANTS

POLLUTANTS

NITROGEN

CARBON MONOXIDE

OXYGEN

SULPHUR DIOXIDE

CARBON DIOXIDE

NITROGEN MONOXIDE

ARGON

WATER VAPOUR

slide13

THE ATMOSPHERE TODAY

THE EARTH IS COVERED BY A THIN LAYER OF ATMOSPHERE MADE UP OF A MIXTURE OF GASES

slide14

THE ATMOSPHERE TODAY

THE MOST COMMON GASES IN THE ATMOSPHERE ARE

slide15

THE ATMOSPHERE TODAY

THE MOST COMMON GASES IN THE ATMOSPHERE ARE

NITROGEN

slide16

THE ATMOSPHERE TODAY

THE MOST COMMON GASES IN THE ATMOSPHERE ARE

OXYGEN

NITROGEN

slide17

THE ATMOSPHERE TODAY

THE MOST COMMON GASES IN THE ATMOSPHERE ARE

OTHER GASES

(MOSTLY ARGON)

OXYGEN

NITROGEN

ESTIMATE THE PERCENTAGES

slide18

THE ATMOSPHERE TODAY

THE MOST COMMON GASES IN THE ATMOSPHERE ARE

OTHER GASES

(MOSTLY ARGON)

OXYGEN

1%

21%

78%

NITROGEN

slide19

ATMOSPHERIC GASES - SUMMARY

Air is a mixture of various gases

slide20

ATMOSPHERIC GASES - SUMMARY

Air is a mixture of various gases

Its composition can vary depending on the environment.

If one ignores water vapour 0% - 4%

pollutants (variable)

slide21

ATMOSPHERIC GASES - SUMMARY

Air is a mixture of various gases

Its composition can vary depending on the environment.

If one ignores water vapour 0% - 4%

pollutants (variable)

the main constituents are nitrogen 78%

oxygen 21%

noble gases* 1%

carbon dioxide 0.03%

* mostly argon but with some helium, neon, krypton and xenon

The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally

distilled to provide a source of raw materials used in a variety of

Industrial processes.

slide23

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR

The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally

distilled to provide useful raw materials used in industrial processes.

slide24

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR

The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally

distilled to provide useful raw materials used in industrial processes.

Air

Air is filtered to remove dust

Water vapour condenses, and is removed using absorbent filters

Carbon dioxide freezes at –79ºC, and is removed

The remaining air is cooled in stages to –200°C where it is a liquid

The liquid is then allowed to warm up

Nitrogen boils off first at –196ºC

Oxygen boils off at –183ºC

slide25

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR

The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally

distilled to provide useful raw materials used in industrial processes.

Air is filtered to remove dust

Water vapour condenses, and is removed using absorbent filters

Carbon dioxide freezes at –79ºC, and is removed

The remaining air is cooled in stages to –200°C where it is a liquid

The liquid is then allowed to warm up

Nitrogen boils off first at –196ºC

Oxygen boils off at –183ºC

slide26

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR

The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally

distilled to provide useful raw materials used in industrial processes.

CO2

Air is filtered to remove dust

Water vapour condenses, and is removed using absorbent filters

Carbon dioxide freezes at –79ºC, and is removed

The remaining air is cooled in stages to –200°C where it is a liquid

The liquid is then allowed to warm up

Nitrogen boils off first at –196ºC

Oxygen boils off at –183ºC

slide27

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR

The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally

distilled to provide useful raw materials used in industrial processes.

Air is filtered to remove dust

Water vapour condenses, and is removed using absorbent filters

Carbon dioxide freezes at –79ºC, and is removed

The remaining air is cooled in stages to –200°C where it is a liquid

The liquid is then allowed to warm up

Nitrogen boils off first at –196ºC

Oxygen boils off at –183ºC

slide28

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR

The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally

distilled to provide useful raw materials used in industrial processes.

Air is filtered to remove dust

Water vapour condenses, and is removed using absorbent filters

Carbon dioxide freezes at –79ºC, and is removed

The remaining air is cooled in stages to –200°C where it is a liquid

The liquid is then allowed to warm up

Nitrogen boils off first at –196ºC

Oxygen boils off at –183ºC

slide29

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR

The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally

distilled to provide useful raw materials used in industrial processes.

N2

Air is filtered to remove dust

Water vapour condenses, and is removed using absorbent filters

Carbon dioxide freezes at –79ºC, and is removed

The remaining air is cooled in stages to –200°C where it is a liquid

The liquid is then allowed to warm up

Nitrogen boils off first at –196ºC

Oxygen boils off at –183ºC

slide30

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR

The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally

distilled to provide useful raw materials used in industrial processes.

O2

Air is filtered to remove dust

Water vapour condenses, and is removed using absorbent filters

Carbon dioxide freezes at –79ºC, and is removed

The remaining air is cooled in stages to –200°C where it is a liquid

The liquid is then allowed to warm up

Nitrogen boils off first at –196ºC

Oxygen boils off at –183ºC

slide31

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR

The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally

distilled to provide useful raw materials used in industrial processes.

CO2

O2

N2

Air

Air is filtered to remove dust

Water vapour condenses, and is removed using absorbent filters

Carbon dioxide freezes at –79ºC, and is removed

The remaining air is cooled in stages to –200°C where it is a liquid

The liquid is then allowed to warm up

Nitrogen boils off first at –196ºC

Oxygen boils off at –183ºC

Argon boils off at -186ºC

slide32

USES OF THE COMPONENTS OF AIR

OXYGEN steel making

oxy-acetylene welding

breathing equipment

aerating sewage

NITROGEN inert atmosphere for food – stops it going ‘off’

liquid nitrogen is used for cooling medical tissue

ARGON inert atmosphere for light bulbs

slide34

COMPOSITION OF AIR - LABORATORY EXPERIMENT

Place copper turnings in a silica tube and fill one of the syringes with

air. Heat the copper and push the air repeatedly over it. Continue until

the volume is constant.

The pinkish solid turns black and the volume of air decreases.

THE ANIMATION WILL START SOON

The copper reacts with about 20% of air, OXYGEN, to produce a new

substance. The remaining, unreactive, 80% is mostly NITROGEN.

slide36

THE ATMOSPHERE

ORIGIN

During the first billion years of the earth’s existence,

there was intense volcanic activity which released…

GASES - this formed the original atmosphere

WATER VAPOUR - which eventually condensed to form oceans

slide37

THE ATMOSPHERE

ORIGIN

During the first billion years of the earth’s existence,

there was intense volcanic activity which released…

GASES - this formed the original atmosphere

WATER VAPOUR - which eventually condensed to form oceans

The atmosphere was probably...

mainlyCARBON DIOXIDE

some WATERVAPOUR

small amounts ofMETHANE

small amounts ofAMMONIA

Since then it has changed considerably

slide38

THE ATMOSPHERE

1

Theearth was molten

Any atmosphere

burned away

1

4½ 4 3 2 1 0

BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO

slide39

THE ATMOSPHERE

2

Volcanic activity

CARBON DIOXIDE

plus STEAM and

a little METHANE and

AMMONIA

(A bit like Mars or Venus today)

1

2

4½ 4 3 2 1 0

BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO

slide40

THE ATMOSPHERE

3

Theearth cooled

WATER VAPOUR

condensed to form

the oceans.

1

2

3

4½ 4 3 2 1 0

BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO

slide41

THE ATMOSPHERE

4

Plants began to evolve;

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Atmosphere

became ‘polluted’

with OXYGEN

1

2

3

4

4½ 4 3 2 1 0

BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO

slide42

THE ATMOSPHERE

5

CO2 dissolved in oceans

forming carbonates and also

got ‘locked up’ in sedimentary

rocks and fossils fuels

CARBON DIOXIDE

levels went down

1

2

3

4

5

4½ 4 3 2 1 0

BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO

slide43

THE ATMOSPHERE

6

Methane and ammonia

reacted with oxygen

NITROGEN and

CARBON DIOXIDE

were produced

1

2

3

4

5

6

4½ 4 3 2 1 0

BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO

slide44

THE ATMOSPHERE

7

Ammonia converted to

nitrates by bacteria

More NITROGEN

produced and

ammonia levels

drop

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

4½ 4 3 2 1 0

BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO

slide45

THE ATMOSPHERE

8

SOME OXYGEN TURNED INTO

TO OZONE WHICH FILTERED

OUT HARMFUL UV RAYS AND

ALLOWED MORE ORGANISMS

TO EVOLVE.

Small decrease in

OXYGEN; OZONE

layer formed

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

4½ 4 3 2 1 0

BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO

slide46

THE ATMOSPHERE

9

Today’s atmosphere

NITROGEN 78% 4/5

OXYGEN 21% 1/5

+

NOBLE GASES

CARBON DIOXIDE

WATER VAPOUR

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

4½ 4 3 2 1 0

BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO

slide48

THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT (1952)

Two scientists, Miller and Urey, tried to recreate the conditions which

may might have occurred around 3 billion years ago.

slide49

THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT (1952)

Two scientists, Miller and Urey, tried to recreate the conditions which

may might have occurred around 3 billion years ago.

They mixed water vapour with ammonia, methane and hydrogen and

passed electric sparks (to represent lightning) through the gases.

slide50

THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT (1952)

Two scientists, Miller and Urey, tried to recreate the conditions which

may might have occurred around 3 billion years ago.

They mixed water vapour with ammonia, methane and hydrogen and

passed electric sparks (to represent lightning) through the gases.

When they analysed the mixture they found that many carbon-based

compounds had formed inside the flask.

Some compounds were amino acids which can be built into proteins.

slide51

THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT (1952)

Two scientists, Miller and Urey, tried to recreate the conditions which

may might have occurred around 3 billion years ago.

They mixed water vapour with ammonia, methane and hydrogen and

passed electric sparks (to represent lightning) through the gases.

When they analysed the mixture they found that many carbon-based

compounds had formed inside the flask.

Some compounds were amino acids which can be built into proteins.

The first life forms (about 3 billion years ago) may have been bacteria

which were able to live on methane and ammonia.

Primordial soup is a mixture of chemicals which may have given rise to

life on Earth. It can be used to explain how living organisms appeared

on Earth.

slide52

THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT (1952)

Two scientists, Miller and Urey, tried to recreate the conditions which

may might have occurred around 3 billion years ago.

They mixed water vapour with ammonia, methane and hydrogen and

passed electric sparks (to represent lightning) through the gases.

When they analysed the mixture they found that many carbon-based

compounds had formed inside the flask.

Some compounds were amino acids which can be built into proteins.

The first life forms (about 3 billion years ago) may have been bacteria

which were able to live on methane and ammonia.

Primordial soup is a mixture of chemicals which may have given rise to

life on Earth. It can be used to explain how living organisms appeared

on Earth.

HOWEVER, IT IS JUST ONE OF MANY THEORIES

slide54

THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT

GASES ARE ADDED

H2, CH4, NH3

A SPARK IS

APPLIED TO

THE MIXTURE

OF GASES

WATER

VAPOUR

UNREACTED

GASES ARE

RECYCLED

THE GAS

MIXTURE IS

COOLED

WATER IS

HEATED

ANY LIQUID IS

DRAWN OFF

slide55

THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT

GASES ARE ADDED

H2, CH4, NH3

A SPARK IS

APPLIED TO

THE MIXTURE

OF GASES

WATER

VAPOUR

UNREACTED

GASES ARE

RECYCLED

THE GAS

MIXTURE IS

COOLED

WATER IS

HEATED

ANY LIQUID IS

DRAWN OFF

slide56

THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT

GASES ARE ADDED

H2, CH4, NH3

A SPARK IS

APPLIED TO

THE MIXTURE

OF GASES

WATER

VAPOUR

UNREACTED

GASES ARE

RECYCLED

THE GAS

MIXTURE IS

COOLED

WATER IS

HEATED

ANY LIQUID IS

DRAWN OFF

slide57

THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT

GASES ARE ADDED

H2, CH4, NH3

A SPARK IS

APPLIED TO

THE MIXTURE

OF GASES

WATER

VAPOUR

UNREACTED

GASES ARE

RECYCLED

THE GAS

MIXTURE IS

COOLED

WATER IS

HEATED

ANY LIQUID IS

DRAWN OFF

slide58

THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT

GASES ARE ADDED

H2, CH4, NH3

A SPARK IS

APPLIED TO

THE MIXTURE

OF GASES

WATER

VAPOUR

UNREACTED

GASES ARE

RECYCLED

THE GAS

MIXTURE IS

COOLED

WATER IS

HEATED

ANY LIQUID IS

DRAWN OFF

slide59

THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT

GASES ARE ADDED

H2, CH4, NH3

A SPARK IS

APPLIED TO

THE MIXTURE

OF GASES

WATER

VAPOUR

UNREACTED

GASES ARE

RECYCLED

THE GAS

MIXTURE IS

COOLED

WATER IS

HEATED

ANY LIQUID IS

DRAWN OFF

slide60

THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT

GASES ARE ADDED

H2, CH4, NH3

A SPARK IS

APPLIED TO

THE MIXTURE

OF GASES

WATER

VAPOUR

UNREACTED

GASES ARE

RECYCLED

THE GAS

MIXTURE IS

COOLED

WATER IS

HEATED

ANY LIQUID IS

DRAWN OFF

slide61

THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT

GASES ARE ADDED

H2, CH4, NH3

A SPARK IS

APPLIED TO

THE MIXTURE

OF GASES

WATER

VAPOUR

UNREACTED

GASES ARE

RECYCLED

THE GAS

MIXTURE IS

COOLED

WATER IS

HEATED

ANY LIQUID IS

DRAWN OFF

slide63

CARBON DIOXIDE IN THE ATMOSPHERE

THEN

Years ago carbon dioxide got ‘locked up’ in limestone rock which had formed

from the remains of shellfish.

The carbon dioxide also reacted with sea water to produce insoluble

carbonates which formed a sediment and soluble magnesium

hydrogencarbonate and calcium hydrogencarbonate.

Carbon dioxide ended up as the carbon in fossil fuels.

slide64

CARBON DIOXIDE IN THE ATMOSPHERE

THEN

Years ago carbon dioxide got ‘locked up’ in limestone rock which had formed

from the remains of shellfish.

The carbon dioxide also reacted with sea water to produce insoluble

carbonates which formed a sediment and soluble magnesium

hydrogencarbonate and calcium hydrogencarbonate

Carbon dioxide ended up as the carbon in fossil fuels

NOW

Animals and humans produce carbon dioxide through respiration

Plants help in removing carbon dioxide through photosynthesis.

This process isn’t enough to balance the extra carbon dioxide produced by the

burning of fossil fuels.

The extra carbon dioxide contributes to global warming as a greenhouse gas.

slide65

CARBON DIOXIDE IN THE ATMOSPHERE

AIR

CO2

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

COMBUSTION

OCEANS

SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

slide66

THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE

THE END

© 2011 JONATHAN HOPTON & KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING