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Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust. Chapter F4. Bellringer. Compare the mountains in the photographs. Write a description of each mountain, and suggest how it might have formed.

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slide1

Section4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust

Chapter F4

Bellringer

Compare the mountains in the photographs. Write a description of each mountain, and suggest how it might have formed.

Do you know where these various types of mountains are found in the world? Have you ever visited any of them? Would it ever be dangerous to study them?

slide3

Section4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust

Chapter F4

Objectives

  • Describe the types of stress that deform rocks and the major types of folds and faults.
  • Identify the most common types of mountains and explain the difference between uplift and subsidence.
slide4

Section4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust

Chapter F4

Agenda

  • Day 1
  • Today we will:
    • Do a do now.
    • Complete a start up activity.
    • Learn about mountains.
  • Day 2
    • Today we will:
slide5

Section4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust

Chapter F4

Objectives

  • compression
  • tension
  • folding
    • syncline
    • anticline
  • fault
  • uplift
  • subsidence
slide6

Section4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust

Chapter F4

Deformation

  • Whether a material bends or breaks depends on the how much stress is applied to the material.
  • Stress is the amount of force per unit area on a given material.
  • Different things happen to rock when different types of stress are applied.
slide7

Section4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust

Chapter F4

Deformation, continued

  • The process by which the shape of a rock changes because of stress is called deformation.
  • Rock layers bend when stress is placed on them.
  • When enough stress is placed on rocks, they can reach their elastic limit and break.
slide8

Section4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust

Chapter F4

Deformation, continued

  • The type of stress that occurs when an object is squeezed, such as when two tectonic plates collide, is called compression.
  • When compression occurs at a convergent boundary, large mountain ranges can form.
slide9

Section4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust

Chapter F4

Deformation, continued

  • Tension is stress that occurs when forces act to stretch an object.
  • Tension occurs at divergent plate boundaries, such as mid-ocean ridges, when two tectonic plates pull away from each other.
slide10

Section4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust

Chapter F4

Folding

  • The bending of rock layers because of stress in the Earth’s crust is called folding.
  • Types of Folds Depending on how rock layers deform, different types of folds are made.
  • The major types of folds are anticlines, synclines, and monoclines.
slide11

Section4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust

Chapter F4

Folding, continued

  • Anticlines are upward-arching folds.
  • Synclines are downward, troughlike folds.
slide12

Section4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust

Chapter F4

Folding, continued

  • In amonocline,rock layers are folded so that both ends of the fold are horizontal.
slide13

Section4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust

Chapter F4

Faulting

  • Some rock layers break when stress is applied. The surface along which rocks break and slide past each other is called a fault.
  • The blocks of crust on each side of the fault are calledfault blocks.
slide14

Section4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust

Chapter F4

Faulting, continued

  • When a fault is not vertical, its two sides are either a hanging wall or a footwall.
slide15

Section4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust

Chapter F4

Faulting, continued

  • The type of fault depends on how the hanging wall and footwall move in relationship to each other.
  • When a normal fault moves, it causes the hanging wall to move down relative to the footwall.
slide16

Section4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust

Chapter F4

Faulting, continued

  • When a reverse fault moves, it causes the hanging wall to move up relative to the footwall.
slide17

Section4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust

Chapter F4

Faulting, continued

  • A third major type of fault is a strike-slip fault. These faults form when opposing forces cause rock to break and move horizontally.
slide18

Section4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust

Chapter F4

Plate Tectonics and Mountain Building

  • When tectonic plates collide, land features that start as folds and faults can eventually become large mountain ranges.
  • When tectonic plates undergo compressions or tension, they can form mountains in several ways.
slide19

Section4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust

Chapter F4

Mountain Building, continued

  • Folded Mountains form when rock layers are squeezed together and pushed upward.
  • Fault-Block Mountains form when large blocks of the Earth’s crust drop down relative to other blocks.
  • Volcanic Mountains form when magma rises to the Earth’s surface and erupts.
slide20

Section4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust

Chapter F4

Uplift and Subsidence

  • Vertical movements in the crust are divided into two types—uplift and subsidence.
  • Uplift is the rising of regions of the Earth’s crust to higher elevations.
  • Subsidence is the sinking of regions of the Earth’s crust to lower elevations.
slide21

Section4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust

Chapter F4

Uplift and Subsidence, continued

  • Uplifting of Depressed Rocks Uplift can occur when large areas of land rise without deforming.
  • One way areas rise without deforming is process known as rebound. When the crust rebounds, it slowly springs back to its previous elevation.
slide22

Section4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust

Chapter F4

Uplift and Subsidence, continued

  • Subsidence of Cooler Rocks Rocks that are hot take up more space than cooler rocks.
  • The lithosphere is relatively hot at mid-ocean ridges, but cools as it moves farther from the ridge.
  • As it cools, the oceanic lithosphere takes up less volume and the ocean floor subsides.
slide23

Section4 Deforming the Earth’s Crust

Chapter F4

Uplift and Subsidence, continued

  • Tectonic Letdown Subsidence can also occur when the lithosphere becomes stretched in rift zones.
  • A rift zone is a set of deep cracks that forms between two tectonic plates that are pulling away from each other.
  • As tectonic plates pull apart, stress between the plates causes a series of faults to form along the rift zone.
exit ticket
Exit Ticket
  • What are mountains? Explain at least 2 ways in which they form.
slide25

Plate Tectonics

Chapter F4

Concept Map

Use the terms below to complete the concept map on the next slide.

slide26

Plate Tectonics

Chapter F4

slide27

Plate Tectonics

Chapter F4

slide28

Chapter F4

End of Chapter F4 Show

slide29

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

Reading

Read each of the passages. Then, answer the questions that follow each passage.

slide30

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

Passage 1The Deep Sea Drilling Project was a program to retrieve and research rocks below the ocean to test the hypothesis of sea-floor spreading. For 15 years, scientists studying sea-floor spreading conducted research aboard the ship Glomar Challenger.Holes were drilled in the sea floor from the ship.

Continued on the next slide

slide31

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

Passage 1, continuedLong, cylindrical lengths of rock, called cores, were obtained from the drill holes. By examining fossils in the cores, scientists discovered that rock closest to mid-ocean ridges was the youngest. The farther from the ridge the holes were drilled, the older the rock in the cores was. This evidence supported the idea that sea-floor spreading creates new lithosphere at mid-ocean ridges.

slide32

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

1. In the passage, what does conducted mean?

Adirected

Bled

Ccarried on

Dguided

slide33

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

1. In the passage, what does conducted mean?

Adirected

Bled

Ccarried on

Dguided

slide34

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

2. Why were cores drilled in the sea floor from the Glomar Challenger?

Fto determine the depth of the crust

Gto find minerals in the sea-floor rock

Hto examine fossils in the sea-floor rock

Ito find oil and gas in the sea-floor rock

slide35

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

2. Why were cores drilled in the sea floor from the Glomar Challenger?

Fto determine the depth of the crust

Gto find minerals in the sea-floor rock

Hto examine fossils in the sea-floor rock

Ito find oil and gas in the sea-floor rock

slide36

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

3. Which of the following statements is a fact according to the passage?

ARock closest to mid-ocean ridges is older than rock at a distance from mid-ocean ridges.

BOne purpose of scientific research on the Glomar Challenger was to gather evidence for sea-floor spreading.

CFossils examined by scientists came directly from the sea floor.

DEvidence gathered by scientists did not support sea-floor spreading.

slide37

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

3. Which of the following statements is a fact according to the passage?

ARock closest to mid-ocean ridges is older than rock at a distance from mid-ocean ridges.

BOne purpose of scientific research on the Glomar Challenger was to gather evidence for sea-floor spreading.

CFossils examined by scientists came directly from the sea floor.

DEvidence gathered by scientists did not support sea-floor spreading.

slide38

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

Passage 2The Himalayas are a range of mountains that is 2,400 km long and that arcs across Pakistan, India, Tibet, Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan. The Himalayas are the highest mountains on Earth. Nine mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest mountain on Earth, are more than 8,000 m tall.

Continued on the next slide

slide39

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

Passage 2, continuedThe formation of the Himalaya Mountains began about 80 million years ago. A tectonic plate carrying the Indian subcontinent collided with the Eurasian plate. The Indian plate was driven beneath the Eurasian plate. This collision caused the uplift of the Eurasian plate and the formation of the Himalayas. This process is continuing today.

slide40

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

1. In the passage, what does the word arcs mean?

Aforms a circle

Bforms a plane

Cforms a curve

Dforms a straight line

slide41

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

1. In the passage, what does the word arcs mean?

Aforms a circle

Bforms a plane

Cforms a curve

Dforms a straight line

slide42

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

2. According to the passage, which geologic process formed the Himalaya Mountains?

Fdivergence

Gsubsidence

Hstrike-slip faulting

Iconvergence

slide43

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

2. According to the passage, which geologic process formed the Himalaya Mountains?

Fdivergence

Gsubsidence

Hstrike-slip faulting

Iconvergence

slide44

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

3. Which of the following statements is a fact according to the passage?

AThe nine tallest mountains on Earth are located in the Himalaya Mountains.

BThe Himalaya Mountains are located within six countries.

CThe Himalaya Mountains are the longest mountain range on Earth.

DThe Himalaya Mountains formed more than 80 million years ago.

slide45

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

3. Which of the following statements is a fact according to the passage?

AThe nine tallest mountains on Earth are located in the Himalaya Mountains.

BThe Himalaya Mountains are located within six countries.

CThe Himalaya Mountains are the longest mountain range on Earth.

DThe Himalaya Mountains formed more than 80 million years ago.

slide46

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

Interpreting Graphics

This illustration shows the relative velocities (in centimeters per year) and directions in which tectonic plates are separating and colliding. Arrows that point away from one another indicate plate separation. Arrows that point toward one another indicate plate collision.

slide47

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

1. Between which two tectonic plates does spreading appear to be the fastest?

Athe Australian and the Pacific

Bthe Antarctic and the Pacific

Cthe Nazca and the Pacific

Dthe Cocos and the Pacific

slide48

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

1. Between which two tectonic plates does spreading appear to be the fastest?

Athe Australian and the Pacific

Bthe Antarctic and the Pacific

Cthe Nazca and the Pacific

Dthe Cocos and the Pacific

slide49

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

2. Where do you think mountain building is taking place?

Fbetween the African and South American plates

Gbetween the Nazca and South American plates

H between the North American and Eurasian plates

Ibetween the African and North American plates

slide50

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

2. Where do you think mountain building is taking place?

Fbetween the African and South American plates

Gbetween the Nazca and South American plates

H between the North American and Eurasian plates

Ibetween the African and North American plates

slide51

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

Math

Read each question, and choose the best answer.

slide52

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

1. The mesosphere is 2,550 km thick, and the asthenosphere is 250 km thick. If you assume that the lithosphere is 150 km thick and that the crust is 50 km thick, how thick is the mantle?

A2,950 km

B2,900 km

C2,800 km

D2,550 km

slide53

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

1. The mesosphere is 2,550 km thick, and the asthenosphere is 250 km thick. If you assume that the lithosphere is 150 km thick and that the crust is 50 km thick, how thick is the mantle?

A2,950 km

B2,900 km

C2,800 km

D2,550 km

slide54

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

2. If a seismic wave travels through the mantle at an average velocity of 8 km/s, how many seconds will the wave take to travel through the mantle?

F318.75 s

G350.0 s

H362.5 s

I368.75 s

slide55

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

2. If a seismic wave travels through the mantle at an average velocity of 8 km/s, how many seconds will the wave take to travel through the mantle?

F318.75 s

G350.0 s

H362.5 s

I368.75 s

slide56

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

3. If the crust in a certain area is subsiding at the rate of 2 cm per year and has an elevation of 1,000 m, what elevation will the crust have in 10,000 years?

A500 m

B800 m

C1,200 m

D2,000 m

slide57

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

3. If the crust in a certain area is subsiding at the rate of 2 cm per year and has an elevation of 1,000 m, what elevation will the crust have in 10,000 years?

A500 m

B800 m

C1,200 m

D2,000 m

slide58

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

4. A very small oceanic plate is located between a mid-ocean ridge and a subduction zone. At the ridge, the plate is growing at a rate of 5 km every 1 million years. At the subduction zone, the plate is being destroyed at a rate of 10 km every 1 million years. If the oceanic plate is 100 km across, how long will it take the plate to disappear?

F100 million years

G50 million years

H20 million years

I5 million years

slide59

Standardized Test Preparation

Chapter F4

4. A very small oceanic plate is located between a mid-ocean ridge and a subduction zone. At the ridge, the plate is growing at a rate of 5 km every 1 million years. At the subduction zone, the plate is being destroyed at a rate of 10 km every 1 million years. If the oceanic plate is 100 km across, how long will it take the plate to disappear?

F100 million years

G50 million years

H20 million years

I5 million years