Public Policy & Social Change Parth J Shah Centre for Civil Society email@example.com
What is public policy? • Who makes policy? • Who influences policy? • Who are affected by policy?
Financing of Films • Mahesh Bhatt meeting Dawood Ibrahim for a loan to finance his new film Why?
School/College Admissions • Long queues • Donations/ capitation fees • Interview of parents and children Why?
Does not own the rickshaw he plies Pays very high rent, Rs 25 a day Cannot expand the busineess Cannot increase his income Why?? Cycle Rickshaw Pullers
Street Hawkers • For 15 years sitting in the same place with about the same amount of goods (investment). Why??
Addressing Social Problems Direct Action Policy Action
Fish, Fish, Fish… • Give fish • Teach fishing • Keep fishing as a viable livelihood • Choose to be a fisherman • Training Institutes giving Diploma in Fishing
Why Policy Action is Better Direct Action • Immediate relief • Specific area/ people • Impact = Efforts • Need for continuous mobilisation Policy Action • Sustained relief • All people • Small change = large impact • Permanent solution
Why Policy Action is Better Direct Action • Only activists can engage • Need information about each new occurrence of the problem • Old problems persist; less time for new ones Policy Action • All people can participate • Internalised correctional feedback • Time, energy and motivation left for new problems
Enduring Impact System Enduring Leverage Keep Fishing Viable Impact Space Teach Fishing Give Fish Persons Slow Fast Impact Speed cc Anupam Saraph
Think About • One public policy that you think has worked and why • One public policy that you think has not worked and why • One area in which a policy is needed but government does not have one • One are in which government has a policy but it is not necessary
Problem, Policy & Change Is this a Right Policy? Problem: What Policy?
Problem-Policy Match • Problem • Precise identification • Causes (qualitative and quantitative analysis) • Alternative solutions • Costs & benefits • Finances and implementation • Success benchmarks • Regular, independent evaluation
Is this a good policy? • Policy • What is the problem? Is it a genuine problem? NO NEED OF POLICY! • Who should act? State, markets, charities • Limit freedom? • Reduce choice and competition? • Create monopoly? Entry or exit barriers? • Unintended consequences? • Implementation: Information and incentives
Good Policy? • Who’s for it? Who’s against it? Follow the money! • Winners and Losers? • Effect on marginalised groups? • Effect on all groups in the society? • Externalities or third-party effects? • Short, medium, and long term effects?
Water and Farmers • Road Roko Andolan to stop agriculture water diverted to the city Why??
Communal Riots • Destruction of lives • Destruction of property (looting, burning shops, houses)
People’s Representatives? • Criminal elected to assembly and parliament
Tribals Surviving? • Tribals shot at a protest against acquisition of land in their area • Elephants let loose on ‘encroached’ tribal dwellings in forests