Once upon a time… • Middle Ages: Gregorian chant, Perotin, three-part writing • Renaissance (1400-1600): “Rebirth” (Palestrina, Monteverdi) Chansons, imitative counterpoint in four or more parts, smooth, homogeneous, imitative polyphonic, used in sacred and now also in secular madrigals, lute • Baroque (1600-1750): (Vivaldi, J.S. Bach, Handel) The term “Baroque”, first used in French, derives form the Portuguese word meaning a pearl of irregular shape. It was applied more to art until present century. “Baroque” refers to a period in music history which began in Italy and ended in England and Spain )use of basso continuo) • Classic (1750-1900): (Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert) Applied to music that is a model of excellence or formal discipline, dynamics, orchestral colour in a thematic way, use of rhythm, modulation (for spans of tension and release), sonata allegro form
The Set Up • The Romantic Epoch • Wagner, Brahms, Tchaikovsky, Strauss, Chopin, Paganini, Liszt • Fantasy and imagination instead of balance, restraint and good taste • Chief development started in Paris and Germany • Led to looser and more extended musical forms(symphonic poem, nocturne, art song, opera, virtuoso performer, search for national identity)
MODERN (1900- )
Styles and Forms • Radical changes- Some composers abandoned pitch material of tonal music (major and minor scales, triads, and other forms of harmonic contributions). • Departing from Tonality-19th century was very stable in its tonality. Now regular use of modulations, going away from V-I cadences, chromatic alterations( not belonging to key) • Atonality-No note predominates any other, characteristics hard to find, 12-tone technique, Major and minor triads tend to be avoided • Microtonal-Finer difference of pitch, found in exotic scales • Exotic Harmonies-Whole-tone scale and all different forms of scales • Aleatory music-“Chance music”, elements traditionally determined by the composer are determined either by random selection by the composer or by choice of performer(s). All done by dice throwings, dynamics, etc..
Late 20th Century • Styles and forms: serialism, electronic music, minimalism, sound mass, then back to tonality • Composers: 1900-1945> Debussy, Bartok, Stravinsky: after 1945> Harry Partch, John Cage, Philip Glass, Andrew Lloyd Webber, Webern • Instruments: timpani, snare drum, cymbals, tam tam, xylophone, modern guitar, synthesizer, keyboard, “new” instruments (cloud chamber bowls, etc.) • Technology: LP’s, cd’s, cassettes, microphones, multi-tracking, music in films, radio, computers, vibrophone