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Contemporary MediaSport

Contemporary MediaSport

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Contemporary MediaSport

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  1. Contemporary MediaSport Damion Sturm (18 May 2006)

  2. Introduction - the Contemporary Sport Media landscape • Huge topic - apologise as many important issues not covered in depth- ie gender, race, power, stardom, sponsorship • assumption that as Screen students you know that sports coverage is constructed – framing, commentary, selectivity • My focus is on televised sport, spectacle, televisual technologies and fandom • Discussing elite global sports

  3. Contemporary Sport – A commodity • Huge sums of money (1995 - Tampa Bay $192m, Dallas Mavericks $125m, LA Kings $119m) • Estimated Values - NBA 1980 $118m; 1994 $3b • 2000 – New York Yankees $548m; Manchester United $1.5b • Formula One – annual operating costs $2.1 -2.5b (US); Ferrari purported to spend in excess of $400m/season • Sport stars as commodities – Michael Jordan - salary 1995 - $4m (+40m in endorsements),1996 $30m (Tops Forbes rich list 1998 - $69m) • Tiger Woods -1996 – Nike $40m; 2000 - $100m/5yr • Gendered – 1998 Martina Hingis & Anna Kournikova

  4. Contemporary Sport –Mediation • Mass mediated – ie TV, Magazines, Internet, Video games, Films • ESPN sport only TV network • Sport co-exists with media – F1 image; TV timeouts; video refs; photo finish; judiciary • Media ownership of sport teams – Atlanta Braves, Hawks & Thrashers (TimeWarner) • increasingly globalised (sports & audiences) • influenced by US sports coverage model – hype & statistics • Coverage reliant on innovative televisual technologies

  5. The Televised Sport Spectacle • “For most of us, for most of the time, sport is television sport” (Whannel, 1992, p. 3). • Sport is re-presented for TV • combines entertainment and news values to entertain and attract/retain audiences – variety of sport shows • Need to enhance the sporting spectacle • Some sports use rules - CART racing • New regulations - beach volleyball • or devise new format - One-Day cricket; Twenty20 • Ideal for networks and advertisers • Televised sport presents “ideal spectator with a perfect view” (Whannel, 1992, p. 96)

  6. Televisual Technologies • Connections with film theory – 180 degree rule; like post-classical cinema, move to new spatial orientations & steadicam (see Cubitt, 2004) – but adapted for TV • televisual technology - “virtual spectator” - America’s Cup, cricket, NFL • Multiple camera positions and angles which enhance viewpoints and realism. • Implications for viewer identification and engagement (move beyond Whannel’s ‘ideal spectator’) • Tracking shots (athletics, swimming, diving); steadicam (league, athletics); sky-cam (league), ‘stump cam’ (cricket) • POV and first-person, subjective perspectives – ‘umpire cam’, On-board Cameras; ‘helmet-cam’

  7. Case Study: Formula One as a profoundly mediated sport • Second most popular TV sport - 54 billion viewers for 2001 season, average 3,590 million per race • 2003 rule changes - need to increase the “spectacle of F1 racing” - declining televisual audiences. • mediated existence (Live television, internet, magazines, videogames) - reliance on these to consume F1 • Being “there” and being “here”

  8. Contemporary Sport fandom - possibilities • Mediations, technologies and innovations invaluable • Performers – enact our performances as fans • Consumers – commodified, procure products • Concept of ‘performative consumption’ (Hills, 2002) • global/geographical boundaries increasingly transcended - access to distant/remote sports and to sport stars • allows multiple and far-ranging sport fandom – • NZ teams – Kiwis, Black Caps, All Whites, A1 GP, AB’s • Global teams - Wests Tigers (NRL, Australia); Liverpool F.C. (EPL, England); San Francisco 49ers (NFL, USA) • or stars - Jacques Villeneuve (F1), Benji Marshall (Tigers), Valentino Rossi (MotoGP) • Sport video games - “the modern sports game is no longer a recreation of an actual sport so much as it is a re-creation of viewing that sport on television” (Poole, 2000, p. 39).

  9. Future of contemporary mediated sport and fandom • Technologies/mediations constantly evolving • increased perspectives, realism, involvement • More live coverage - wider sports coverage or status quo? - ie those with global appeal yet local important • viewing stadiums? – ie America’s Cup; State of Origin 2002, Soccer World Cup 2006 • further blurring of boundaries between the “real” sport, mediated versions, and sport fandom