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19 th century society. CHANGING FAMILY. Romantic love became the most important reason for marriage by 1850 Middle class females monitored extremely close by parents High rate of illegitimacy decreased after 1850 Fidelity in marriage especially emphasized

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changing family
  • Romantic love became the most important reason for marriage by 1850
  • Middle class females monitored extremely close by parents
  • High rate of illegitimacy decreased after 1850
  • Fidelity in marriage especially emphasized
  • After 1850 work of most wives was increasingly separate from work of husbands
child rearing in middle class families
  • Lower mortality rates for children resulted in parents becoming more emotionally involved in children’s lives
  • Married couples had decreased number of children
  • Increase in books on child rearing
  • Parents now much more intent on improving the economic and social condition of their children
child rearing in working class families
  • Unlike middle-class kids, working class children did not remain economically dependent on their families
  • Children went to work when they reached adolescence
  • Working class youths broke away from families easier than middle class
  • Population growth
    • Britain first
    • Population of Europe increased by 50% between 1870 and 1914
    • Better medical knowledge, nutrition and housing were key
    • Number of children per family fell
  • Poor living conditions in first half of 19th century
public health movement
  • Sought to remedy the high disease and mortality rate
  • Edwin Chadwick – influenced by Bentham’s utilitarianism (greatest good for the greatest number)
  • Disease and death as primary causes of poverty
  • “Sanitary idea” - prevent disease by cleaning up environment
  • By 1860s and 1870s many European cities had made significant progress in public sanitation
urban planning public transportation
  • France took lead during Napoleon III
    • Paris redeveloped
    • New aqueducts – doubled fresh water supply, 400 miles of underground sewers built
    • Other cities followed Paris’ lead
  • Mass transportation
    • 1890s – electric streetcar had revolutionized transportation
  • By 1900 only 9% of Britain’s urban population was overcrowded
migration and emmigration
  • Significant migration to cities from the countryside continued
  • Huge numbers of southern and eastern Europeans migrated to America’s largest cities after 1880
changing social structure
  • Social structure changed as a result of the industrial revolution and urbanization
  • Increased standard of living occurred by the 2nd half of the 19th century
    • Gap between wealthy and working class still huge
    • “golden age of the middle class”
    • In Britain, wages and consumption increased 50% between 1820 – 1850
expansion of industry and technology
  • Created growing demand for experts with specialized knowledge
  • Professionals: engineering, architecture, chemistry, accounting and surveying
  • Managers: management of large public and private institutions
  • Expanded and diversified the lower middle class
urban development
  • Industrial and urban development made society more diverse and less unified
  • Diversity within the middle class/bourgeoisie
  • Upper-middle class
  • Diversified middle class
  • Lower-middle class
    • Grew from 7%-20% in 1900
    • Increased women in workforce
characteristics of the middle class
  • Believed strongly in classical liberalism
  • Gained political influence
  • Emphasized individual liberty and respectability based on economic success
  • Families emphasized frugality and planning for the future
  • Family as foundation of the social order
  • Education and religion were seen as extremely important
working class
  • About 80% of the population
  • Many peasants and hired hands
  • Less unified and homogenous as compared to middle class
  • Highly skilled workers at top – “labor aristocracy”
  • Semi-skilled workers
  • Unskilled workers and domestic servants at bottom
the paris commune 1870 1871
  • In 1870, Napoleon III’s Second Empire collapsed when it was defeated by Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War
  • New National Assembly was created
  • Paris Commune (radical communist government) laid siege to Paris
  • From March to May 1871, the Paris Commune fought a bloody struggle with the troops of the National Assembly
  • Paris Commune defeated – led to recovery of France
first communist revolution
First Communist Revolution?

It served as an inspiration to later revolutionaries like Vladimir Lenin.

  • 25,000 Communards killed.
  • 35,000 were arrested.
the third french republic
  • Established in 1875
  • Largely dominated by the bourgeoisie
  • Constitution provided for a republic
  • Reforms
    • Trade unions fully legalized
    • Jules Ferry: established secular education and reform
  • Government fell dozens of times
  • Challenge to government came from the right (conservatives)
boulanger crisis
  • 1887-1889
  • George Boulanger gained support of the military
    • Plotted a coup to overthrow the Republic
    • Republic summoned Boulanger to trial; fled to Belgium and committed suicide
    • Increased public confidence in the Republic
the dreyfus affair
The Dreyfus Affair
  • In 1894 a list of French military documents [called a bordereau] were found in the waste basket of the German Embassy in Paris.
  • French counter-intelligence suspected Captain Alfred Dreyfus, from a wealthy Alsatian Jewish family  he was one of the few Jews on the General Staff.
dreyfus affair
  • 1894 – most serious threat to the Republic
  • Military falsely accused Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a Jew, with supplying secrets to the Germans
  • Monarchists used incident to discredit republicans
  • Emile Zola – took up Dreyfus’ case and condemned military – J’accuse
  • Led to an alliance between moderate republicans and socialists
  • Conservatives and Church were discredited
the dreyfus affair1
The Dreyfus Affair
  • A famous author, Emile Zola, published an open letter called J’Accuse!
    • He accused the army of a mistrial and cover-up.
    • The government prosecuted him for libel.
    • Found him guilty  sentenced to a year in prison.
the dreyfus affair2
The Dreyfus Affair
  • Dreyfus finally got a new trial in 1899.
  • He was brought back from Devil’s Island white-haired and broken.
  • Results:
    • Found guilty again, BUT with extenuating circumstances.
    • Was given a presidential pardon.
    • Exonerated completely in 1906.
    • Served honorably in World War I.
    • Died in 1935.
the victorian compromsie
  • Both Tories and Whigs had considered the 1832 Reform Bill as the FINAL political reform.
  • Therefore, the aims of the two political parties seemed indistinguishable.
  • But, by the 1860s, the middle class and working class had grown  they wanted the franchise expanded!
  • This era saw the realignment of political parties in the House of Commons:
    • Tory Party  Conservative Party under Benjamin Disraeli.
    • Whig Party  Liberal Party under William Gladstone.
the two great men
The Two “Great Men”
  • Benjamin Disraeli, Conservative Prime Minister
    • 1868
    • 1874-1880
  • William Gladstone, Liberal Prime Minister
    • 1868-1874
    • 1880-1885
    • 1886
    • 1892-1894
benjamin disraeli 1804 1881
Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881)
  • A brilliant debater.
  • Baptized by his father into the Anglican Church.
  • BUT, he was the first & only Prime Minister of Jewish parentage.
  • A strong imperialist.
    • “Greater England”foreignpolicy.
  • Respected by Queen Victoria.
  • Britain saw expanded democracy after 1865 under Disraeli and Gladstone
  • Disraeli
    • Argued for aggressive foreign policy, expansion of British Empire and reluctant support of democratic bills
    • Sybil (1845) – expressed sympathy for working class
    • Reform Bill of 1867
      • Expanded Reform Bill of 1832
      • Redistributed seats
      • Essentially doubled number who could vote but not universal suffrage
    • Reduced government regulation of trade unions in 1875
    • Created government regulation for improved sanitation
william gladstone 1809 1898
William Gladstone (1809-1898)

An active legislator and reformer.

Known for his populist speeches.

Could be preachy.

Queen Victoria couldn’t stand him.

Tried to deal with the “Irish Question.”

Supported a “Little England”foreign policy.

  • Supported Irish Home Rule, fiscal policy, free trade, and extension of democratic principles
  • Opposed imperialism
  • Abolished compulsory Church taxes
  • Secret ballot – 1872
  • Civil service reform – 1870
  • Reform Act 1884
    • Suffrage to adult males
    • Two million voters added to franchise
    • Brought Britain close to universal male suffrage
the foreign policy debate
The Foreign Policy Debate

“Little England” Policy

“Big England” Policy


Conservative Party

England must be the greatest colonial power.

Spend £ on supporting the empire.


Liberal Party.

England must invest in her own people at home.

Try negotiations, rather than costly military solutions.

extending democracy
  • New groups emerged in 1880s and 1890s seeking to further extend democracy
  • Women’s suffrage advocates, anti-imperialists, socialists and anti-nationalists
  • Fabian Society (1833) – advanced form of revisionist Marxism
  • Independent Labor Party – rapidly became vocal third party
    • Trade unionists, socialists, those disenfranchised with Conservative and Liberal parties
liberal reforms
  • Parliament Act of 1911
    • Most significant political reform during Liberal party rule
    • Eliminated House of Lords; House of Commons was now the center of national power
    • Life span of Parliament reduced from 7 to 5 years
  • Foundations for social welfare state created in decade before WWI
  • Representation of the People Act (1918)
the irish question
  • Young Ireland Movement (1848) – echoed nationalistic movements on the continent
  • most serious problem from 1890 – 1914
  • Gladstone pushed unsuccessfully for Irish Home Rule
    • MAIN ISSUES: absentee landlords, mandatory Anglican tithes
    • Gladstone improved conditions somewhat
  • Protestant counties in northern Ireland
  • Opposed home rule as they started to enjoy economic growth from mid 1890s
  • Ulsterites raised 100,000 armed volunteers by 1913
  • Supported by British public opinion
  • 1914 – Irish Home Rule Act passed by Commons and Lords; Protestants did not accept it
easter rebellion
  • 1916
  • For independence – crushed by British troops
  • Catholic Eire (Ireland) received dominion status and Ulster (Northern Ireland) remained in United Kingdom
    • Large, discontented Catholic minority
home rule for ireland
Home Rule for Ireland??

Gladstone debates Home Rule in Commons.

german empire
  • Federal union of Prussia and 24 smaller German states
  • Kaiser William I – ultimate power in Germany
  • Otto von Bismarck – served as chancellor for 20 years; mastermind behind the government
  • Reichstag – bicameral legislature
    • Bundestag – lower body, represented the nation
    • Bundesrat – conservative upper body, represented various German states
german political system
  • Conservatives represented the junkers of Prussia
  • Center Catholic Party – approved of Bismarck’s policy of centralization yet advocated regional priorities
  • Social Democratic Party (S.D.P.) – Marxist, advocated sweeping change
  • German middle class largely left out of politics
  • Bismarck saw Center Catholic Party and S.D.P. as major threats to imperial power – sought to destroy them
german empire1
  • Bismarck established an integrated political and economic structure for Germany
    • Unified Germany’s monetary system
    • Established Imperial bank
    • Developed universal German civil and criminal codes
    • Established compulsory military service
  • Struggle for civilization
  • Bismarck sought to limit the influence of the Catholic Center Party
    • In response to Pope Pius IX’s declaration of papal infallibility (1870)
  • Most German states in north were Protestant
  • Catholic party strong in south
    • Proved too popular to be driven underground
    • Bismarck ultimately failed to suppress Catholic Center Party
social democratic party s p d
  • Marxist views
  • Advocated sweeping change in Germany
  • Bismarck instituted a series of reforms to suppress threats from left (socialists)
    • Protective tariff (1879)
    • Modern social security laws established
    • Child labor regulated
    • Improved working conditions
  • Despite better standard of living, workers did not leave S.P.D.
william ii
  • Opposed Bismarck’s renewed efforts to outlaw the S.D.P.
  • Forced Bismarck’s retirement – gain support of workers
  • Ruled for 20 years
  • Aggressive colonial, diplomatic, and naval path
  • Democracy growing – Germany soon to face constitutional crisis