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Society and Culture in the 19 th Century. From “Realism” to “Progress”. Industrial Forces. Between 1850 and 1870, Continental industrialization had come of age

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society and culture in the 19 th century

Society and Culture in the 19th Century

From “Realism” to “Progress”

industrial forces
Industrial Forces
  • Between 1850 and 1870, Continental industrialization had come of age
  • Although this period was marred by periods of economic depression (1857-58) or recession (1866-67), it was an age of considerable economic prosperity, especially evident in the growth of domestic and foreign markets
industrial forces3
Industrial Forces
  • Three forces helped drive Continental economic expansion:
  • Textiles, which experienced an increased mechanization from the period 1850-70, still lagged behind Britain
  • Railroads: Fueled most of European industrialization
  • The railroads, in turn, stimulated the growth of the coal and iron industries
less barriers to international trade
Less Barriers to International Trade
  • Another important factor in Continental industrialization was the expansion of markets due to the lessening of barriers to international trade
  • Important waterways in Europe were opened up by the elimination of restrictive tolls
    • The Danube River (1857)
    • The Rhine (1861)
  • Additionally, the negotiation of trade treaties in the 1860’s reduced or eliminated protective tariffs throughout most of western Europe
weak trade unions
Weak Trade Unions
  • As for the workers, industrialization was not so beneficial as prior to 1870, capitalist factory workers remained free to hire labor on their own terms based upon market forces
  • Attempts at forming Trade Unions
  • Real change in favor of the workers only appeared after 1870 with the appearance of socialist parties and socialist trade union
  • The guiding light in the creation of these groups had already been developed with the writings of Karl Marx
marx and marxism
Marx and Marxism
  • Marxism can be traced to the 1848 publication of a short treatise titled The Communist Manifesto
  • Written by two Germans, Karl Marx (1818-1883) & Friedrich Engels (1820-1895)
life and experience of karl marx
Life and Experience of Karl Marx
  • Born into a relatively prosperous middle class family in Trier, Marx was descended from a long line of rabbis, but his father, a lawyer, had converted to Protestantism to preserve his job
  • Education and influence of the philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
  • After receiving is PhD in philosophy, Marx had hoped to teach at university, but was unable to obtain a position because of his professed atheism, so he became a journalist
  • His newspaper was soon suppressed because of its radical views and Marx soon moved to Paris where he met Friedrich Engels
the communist manifesto
The Communist Manifesto
  • In 1847, Marx and Engels joined a small group of German socialist revolutionaries known as the Communist League
  • Marx & Engels, now enthusiastic advocates of the radical class working class agreed to draft a statement of their ideas for the league
  • The result was The Communist Manifesto
    • Published in German in January 1848, but passed unnoticed
    • However, it would become one of the most influential political treatises in modern European history
    • Ending words
bourgeois and proletariat
Bourgeois and Proletariat
  • Marx’s ideas were partly a synthesis of French and German thought
    • French: Success of a revolution and examples of socialism
    • German: Idealism and the idea of the dialectic
  • However, Marx believed that material forces determined change and not ideas (Hegel)
  • Class struggles drove history
    • Previously it had been between feudalism and the emerging middle class (bourgeoisie) gaining the upper hand
    • Their ideas now became the dominant view of society, but they were not being challenged by the proletariat (industrial working class)
classless society
Classless Society
  • Marx & Engels believed that the workers would eventually overthrow their bourgeois masters and form a dictatorship that would reshape society and the means of production
  • The result would be a classless society, and the state (the instrument of the bourgeoisie) would wither away
  • The Class struggle would finally be over leading to a classless society with progress in science, technology, and industry and to greater wealth for all
later activities
Later Activities
  • After the revolutions of 1848, Marx retreated to London where he spent the rest of his life
  • Writing on political economy: Das Kapital
  • However, only one volume was completed because Marx became preoccupied with organizing the working-class movement
  • The result was the International Working Men’s Association (1864), which eventually became the “First International”
new age of science proliferation of discoveries
New Age of Science Proliferation of Discoveries
  • Effect of The Scientific Revolution on the Western worldview
  • The relationship between the Industrial Revolution and Science
  • New Scientific Discoveries
    • Development of Steam Engine leads to the discovery of thermodynamics
    • Louis Pasteur and the Germ Theory of Disease
    • Dmitri Mendeleyev and the Periodic Chart
    • Michael Faraday and the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction
faith in science s benefits
Faith in Science's Benefits
  • The steadily increasing and dramatic material gains generated by science and technology led to a growth in the faith of science’s benefits
  • Widespread acceptance of the scientific method, based upon observation, experiment and logical analysis and the only path to objective truth & reality
  • Decline of Faith and rise of Materialism
  • This is most clearly seen in the development of the theory of organic evolution as argued by Charles Darwin
charles darwin 1809 1882
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
  • Like many of the great scientists of the 19th century, Darwin was a scientific amateur
  • Born into an upper middle-class family, he studied theology at Cambridge University in addition to pursuing an intense interest in geology & biology
  • In 1831, at age 21 his hobby became his vocation when he was appointed as a naturalist abroad a Royal Navy scientific expedition abroad the HMS Beagle
darwin s trip on the beagle
Darwin's Trip on the Beagle
  • The purpose of the Beagle was to study the landmasses of South America and the South Pacific, with Darwin’s job to study the structure of various plant and animal life
  • Observing animals on islands that were untouched by man, he compared them to animals on the mainland and came to the conclusion that animals evolved over time and in response to their environment
  • Upon his return to Britain, Darwin formulated an explanation for evolution in the principles of Natural Selection, a theory which was presented in his famous book, On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
theory of natural selection
Theory of "Natural Selection"
  • The basic idea was that all plants and animals had evolved over a long period of time from earlier and simpler forms of life (organic evolution)
  • Malthus and the “struggle for existence”
  • This struggle drove evolution as those that were naturally selected for survival survived while the unfit did not and became instinct
  • Originally, Darwin only applied Natural Selection to plant and animal life
  • Only in 1871 with the publication of The Descent of Man did Darwin apply the theory of natural selection to human beings
consequences of darwin
Consequences of Darwin
  • Darwin’s theories were considered very controversial at first
  • Others were disturbed by the implications of life as a struggle for survival - Where was there a place for moral values in this new world based upon survival of the fittest?
  • For others who believed in rational order in the world, Darwin’s theory seemed to preclude purpose and design from the universe
  • As time progressed, however, Darwin’s theories became acceptable, and would soon be applied not just nature, but also society with mixed results
revolution in health care louis pasteur
Revolution in Health Care:Louis Pasteur
  • Helped led the breakthrough in medicine with his discovery of the germ theory of disease
  • Pasteur was not a doctor, but a scientist who approached medical problems in a scientific way
  • His work was soon perceived as practical by many
    • 1863 – Wine Industry and pasteurization
  • In 1877, Pasteur turned his attentions to human diseases
    • 1885 - Introduction of a preventive vaccination against rabies
  • By the 1890’s, the principle of vaccination was extended to diphtheria, typhoid fever, cholera, and plague
revolution in health care joseph lister
Revolution in Health Care:Joseph Lister
  • Pasteur’s work also had an impact upon surgery
  • Surgeons had traditionally set broken bones and treated wounds, but one of the major obstacles to more successful surgery was the inevitable postoperative infection
  • Joseph Lister developed the antiseptic principle
  • Following the work of Pasteur, Lister perceived that bacteria might enter a wound and cause infection
  • His use of carbolic acid, a newly discovered disinfectant, proved remarkably effective in eliminating infections during surgery and increased the survivability rate of patients
realism in literature and art characteristics of realism
Realism in Literature and Art:Characteristics of Realism
  • Appears after 1850
  • Belief that the world should be viewed realistically
  • Literary Realists were distinguished by their deliberate rejection of Romanticism
  • They wanted to deal with ordinary characters from real life rather than Romantic heroes in unusual settings
  • Rejected poetry in favor of prose and the novel
realistic novel
Realistic Novel
  • Gustave Flaubert and Madame Bovary
  • William Thackeray and Vanity Fair
  • Charles Dickens
    • Considered the greatest of the Victorian novelists
    • His focus on the lower and middle classes in Britain’s early industrial age became extraordinarily successful and his descriptions of the urban poor and the brutalization of human life were vividly realistic
realism in art
Realism in Art
  • Realism had by 1850, superseded both Romanticism and Classicism in art with its major characteristics being a desire to depict the everyday life of ordinary people, an attempt at photographic realism, and an interest in the natural environment
  • Gustave Courbet
    • Was the most famous artist of the Realist school
    • In fact, Realism was first coined in 1850 to describe one of his paintings
    • Focus
  • Jean-Francois Millet
    • Preoccupied with scenes from rural life, especially peasants laboring in the fields, although his Realism still contained an element of Romantic sentimentality
    • His most famous work was The Gleaners
music twilight of romanticism
Music: Twilight of Romanticism
  • Franz Liszt
    • Great piano virtuoso and has been credited with introducing the concept of the modern piano recital
  • Richard Wagner
    • Realized the German desire for a truly national opera
    • Was not just a composer, but also a propagandist and writer in support of his own unique concept of music
    • Considered both the culmination of the Romantic era and the beginning of the avant-garde
    • Believed opera was the best form of artistic expression and transformed it into “music drama”
    • Most noted for his The Ring of the Nibelung and operas dealing with myths and epics
the second industrial revolution steel for iron
The Second Industrial Revolution:Steel for Iron
  • The first major change in industrialization after 1870 with the emergence of the Second Industrial Revolution was the substitution of steel for iron
  • Steel could be easily rolled and shaped for multiple uses from railways, ships, and armaments
  • Steel production increased dramatically during this period
    • In 1860, 125,000 tons were produced – by 1913 it was 32 million
from realism to progress
From “Realism” to “Progress”
  • As the mid-point of the 19th century passed, European society underwent further changes
  • A “Second” Industrial Revolution would transform Europe, creating the patterns of life that exist to this day
  • The belief in science and progress creating a new and better world was commonplace throughout a Europe that could see no end to its greatness
the second industrial revolution electricity
The Second Industrial Revolution:Electricity
  • Electricity was another of the developments that drove the Second Industrial Revolution as it proved to be a form of energy of great value and potential
  • Electricity could be transformed into various forms of energy, such as heat, light, and motion
  • Spawned a series of inventions such as the light bulb and revolutionized communications
  • Influence upon transportation
  • Affect upon the factory
  • Allowed countries without coal to catch-up with industrialization
the second industrial revolution the internal combustion engine
The Second Industrial Revolution:The Internal Combustion Engine
  • The third major development of the SDI was the development of the internal combustion engine
  • First produced in 1878 and fired by gas and air, it proved unsuitable until the development of liquid fuels, petroleum and its distilled derivatives
  • As a result, naval ships were soon converted from coal to oil
  • Moreover, the development of the internal combustion engine gave rise to the automobile and airplane which would both revolutionize transportation in the 20th century
the second industrial revolution new markets
The Second Industrial Revolution:New Markets
  • The increase in industrial production required the development of markets for the sale of the new manufactured good, but since the foreign markets were already saturated, Europeans were forced to look at their own domestic markets
  • As Europeans were the richest consumers, these domestic markets offered abundant opportunities which in turn produced new techniques in business and marketing leading to a new consumer ethic which would drive the modern economy and lead to the emergence of a new “Mass Society”
new patterns in an industrial economy
New Patterns in an Industrial Economy
  • From Depression to Prosperity
    • Although the period after 1870 has been described as a period of economic prosperity, recessions and economic crises were still a part of economic life
    • From 1873 to 1895, Europe experienced a series of economic crises, with France and Britain experiencing an economic depression in the 1880’s while Germany and the US were recovering from theirs during the 1870’s
  • However, after 1895 Europe would experience an overall economic boom and a level of economic prosperity was achieved, which in light of the events that would occur in 1914, Europeans would look back upon as la belle époque – a golden age in European civilization
new patterns germany surpasses britain
New Patterns:Germany Surpasses Britain
  • With German unification in 1870, Germany would replace Britain as the industrial leader in Europe
  • How did this come about?
    • Germany, as a late entrant to industrialization, was able to shift better to the new techniques of the SIR, whereas the British were not
    • The British were suspicious to new technologies and could not adapt as easily as their German counterparts
    • Moreover, the British were not willing to encourage formal scientific and technical education
new patterns union of science and technology
New Patterns:Union of Science and Technology
  • This is important because after 1870, the relationship between science and technology grew closer, and this relationship was no more clearly understood than in Germany
  • For example, by 1899 German technical schools were allowed to award doctorate degrees
  • By 1900, they were graduating nearly three to four thousand a year and most of these graduates would find employment in the rising industrial firms of Germany
new patterns european economic zones
New Patterns:European Economic Zones
  • Although the struggle for economic supremacy between Great Britain and Germany was important, we should not overlook another polarization that was occurring within the European economy
  • By 1900, Europe was divided between an advanced industrial zone comprising most of western Europe and a mostly backward and little industrialized area in southern and eastern Europe
  • These largely agricultural areas provided the raw materials and food that drove the more industrialized areas of France, Germany, and Great Britain and this pattern would remain for most of the 20th century
women and new job opportunities
Women and New Job Opportunities
  • The Second Industrial Revolution also had an immense impact upon the position of women in the labor force
  • Throughout the 19th century, there was considerable controversy over a woman’s “right to work”
  • However, more often than not, women had to work to supplement the family income and resorted to low paying and low skilled jobs in sweatshops
women and new job opportunities34
Women and New Job Opportunities
  • White Collar Work
    • However, after 1870 new job opportunities for women arose
    • The development of larger factories and the expansion of government created a large number of service, or white collar, jobs and employers hired women for these positions because they were low-paying and there was a shortage of male workers
    • Although the jobs were unexciting, it allowed middle class women freedom and working-class women the opportunity to escape from the “dirty” work of the lower-class world
  • Prostitution and Lower Class Women
    • Despite these new job opportunities, many lower-class women were still forced to resort to the “oldest profession”, prostitution
    • This was especially true of the rural working-class girls who flocked to the city searching for new job opportunities
organizing the working class socialist parties
Organizing the Working Class:Socialist Parties
  • In an attempt to improve their lot, many workers formed political parties and trade unions
  • One of the largest and most successful was founded in Germany, the German Social Democratic Party (SPD)
  • Socialist parties were formed in other countries, such as Belgium, France, and Austria-Hungary
  • As they grew in strength, the Socialists decided to form the Second International, but differences among the various Socialist parties prevented any real unity
revisions of marxist thought
Revisions of Marxist Thought
  • Evolution, Not Revolution
    • Pure Marxism argued that the collapse of capitalism was imminent and the need for socialist ownership of the means of production
    • This was challenged by Revisionism, which argued that Marx was wrong - capitalism was not going to fall, the conditions of the workers was improving and changed should be achieved through democratic means via Socialist parties
  • Divisiveness of Nationalism
    • Although pure Marxism argued that the workers have no country, in reality nationalism proved too powerful
    • Despite resolutions passed in 1907 & 1910 advocating joint action to prevent war, it proved hollow as the various Socialist parties followed their national interests
emergence of a mass society
Emergence of a Mass Society
  • The new patterns of industrial production, mass consumption, and working-class organization identified with the SIR were only one aspect of the new mass society emerging in Europe after 1870
  • A larger and improved urban environment, new patterns of social structure, gender issues, mass education, and mass leisure were also important features of European society
population growth and emigration
Population Growth and Emigration
  • European population increased from 270 million to 460 million from 1850 & 1910 and after 1880 there was a decline in the death rate
  • Improved Public Sanitation & Medical science
  • An Improved Diet
  • Increased Emigration
    • 1880 (500,000)
    • 1906-1910 (1.3 million)
    • Between 1846 & 1932 60 million left
transformation of the urban environment
Transformation of the Urban Environment
  • Growth of Cities
    • One of the most important consequences of industrialization and the population explosion was the growth in cities
    • Urban population in 1800: 40% in GB, 25% in France & Germany, 10% in Eastern Europe
    • By 1914 urban inhabitants numbered 80% in GB, 45% in France, 60% in Germany and 30% in Eastern Europe
    • Moreover, the size of cities grew – in 1800 there were 21 cities over 100,000 - by 1900 there were 147
  • Improving Living Conditions
    • Sanitation
    • Housing
  • Redesigning the Cities
social structure of mass society
Social Structure of Mass Society
  • Elite: Wealth and Status
  • Middle Classes: Good Conduct
    • Emphasis and concern for propriety and shared values of hard work and Christian morality
  • Lower Classes: Skilled, Semiskilled, Unskilled
the role of women
The Role of Women
  • Cult of Domesticity
    • Women remained legally inferior, economically dependent, and defined by family and household roles
    • Marriage was seen as the only noble profession for women and this was glorified by the middle class in the cult of domesticity
  • Middle Class Family
    • For the middle classes, the family was the central institution of their life
    • Men provided the family income while women focused on household and child care
  • Working Class Family
    • Although initially hard, by 1890, working-class families were following in the wake of the middle class as to their family life
education and leisure in an age of mass society
Education and Leisure in an Age of Mass Society
  • Primary Education for All
    • Government Involvement
    • For a More Efficient Work Force & Skilled Labor
    • For a More Intelligent Electorate: Patriotism and Nationalism
    • Demand for Teachers with most being Females
    • Increase in Literacy allows for the creation of a reading public and the rise of mass-circulation newspapers such as the Evening News (1881) & the Daily Mail (1896)
  • Mass Leisure
    • Dance Halls & Amusement parks
    • Tourism
    • Sports which provided not just entertainment, but also training
political democracy in western europe
Political Democracy in Western Europe
  • British Reform
    • Reform Act of 1884
    • Redistribution Act created constituencies with equal populations with one representative; MP’s were finally given salaries
  • France’s Third Republic
    • National Assembly versus the Commune
    • Attempts to restore a monarchy failed, and a republican form of government was established as a compromise - the constitution of 1875, originally intended as a stopgap measure, would last 65 years
    • However, the Third Republic would remain divided as a result of the Commune and from opposition from the monarchists, the Catholic Church and the Army
persistence of the old order bismarck s conservatism
Persistence of the Old Order:Bismarck’s Conservatism
  • Despite unification, divisions still remained
  • The ruling elite, authoritarians and militaristic, tried to preserve their power against the growth of democracy, especially from the socialists
  • The Kulturkampf
  • Attacks against the Socialists
    • In 1878, Bismarck has the SPD banned, but also tries to woo the workers by enacting social welfare legislation (sickness, disability, accident benefits & old age pensions)
    • Bismarck’s measures fail to stop the growth of socialism and before he can enact more repressive measures he is dismissed by the new Kaiser, William II, who is eager to pursue his own policies
persistence of the old order
Persistence of the Old Order
  • Austria’s Imperial Decrees
    • Austria is given a constitution, but Franz Joseph largely ignores it and rules through decree
    • Furthermore, Austria is still troubled by the problem of the minorities and this would only increase as the century progressed
  • Absolutism in Russia
    • Lastly, in Russia the government made no concessions to liberal or democratic reforms
    • The assassination of Alexander II in 1881 convinced his son Alexander III that reform was a mistake and repressive measures were the common response
    • Upon Alexander’s death, his weak and unprepared son Nicholas II adopted his father’s conviction that the absolute power of the Tsar must be maintained
    • However, the face of Russia was changing and Nicholas’s approach was no longer realistic and would have dire consequences for his dynasty