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19 th Century Architecture
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  1. 19th Century Architecture Architectural History ACT 322 Doris Kemp

  2. Topics • Overview • 19th Century Neo-Classicism • 19th Century Gothic Revival • 19th Century: The Ecole Des Beaux-Arts (School of Art)

  3. 19th Century Architecture • 19th century architecture is one of the most varied periods • Neo-Classicism and Romanticism encouraged revivals of many historic styles • Gothic • Greek • Islamic • Byzantine • Early Christian

  4. 19th Century Neo-Classicism • Karl Friedman Schinkel (1781 – 1841) • The most recognized figure in German Neo-Classical style in the 19th century • Most famous structure is the Altes Museum in Berlin

  5. 19th Century Neo-Classicism • Altes Museum • Built in 1823 – 1828 • Features • Long, rectangular plan • Central, colonnaded rotunda domed like the Pantheon • A continuous, Ionic colonnade along the façade

  6. 19th Century Neo-Classicism http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wcapts2.html

  7. 19th Century Neo-Classicism http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wcapts2.html

  8. 19th Century Neo-Classicism http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wcapts2.html

  9. 19th Century Neo-Classicism • Sir John Soane (1753 – 1837) • Leading architect of the 19th century Neo-Classical movement in England • Considered a highly individual architect whose work features Romantic qualities • Notable structure • 13 Lincoln Inn Fields

  10. 19th Century Neo-Classicism • 13 Lincoln Inn Fields • John Soane’s home • Is now a museum • Features • Diverse array of spaces and levels • Articulated wall planes • Reflected by multiple flat and convex mirrors

  11. 19th Century Neo-Classicism http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wcapts2.html

  12. 19th Century Neo-Classicism http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wcapts2.html

  13. 19th Century Neo-Classicism • Benjamin Harry Latrobe • The United States first professional architect • Commissioned by Thomas Jefferson to continue work on the U.S. Capitol • Key structures • U.S. Capitol • Roman Catholic Cathedral, Baltimore, MD

  14. 19th Century Neo-Classicism • U.S. Capitol • Latrobe completed the north and south wings • Introduced his own work for the American style • Tobacco-leaf capitols in the rotunda of the Senate Chamber • Corn-cob capitols in the north basement vestibule

  15. 19th Century Neo-Classicism http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wcapts2.html

  16. 19th Century Neo-Classicism http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wcapts2.html

  17. 19th Century Gothic Revival • The Romantic Movement acquired a more serious tone with emergence of the Gothic Revival in the 19th century • Led by the English architect Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin

  18. 19th Century Gothic Revival • Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (1812 – 1852) • Leading Gothic revivalist in England • Was a convert to Catholicism • Regarded Gothic as an embodiment of moral and religious values from the past • Felt these traits were missing in the present

  19. 19th Century Gothic Revival • Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (1812 – 1852) • The True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture • Published in 1841 • Enumerated Pugin’s ideals for Gothic architecture • Regarded Gothic as the “only correct expression of the (Christian) faith, wants, and climate”

  20. 19th Century Gothic Revival • Richard Upjohn • The first American architect to follow Pugin’s principles • First major commission was the Trinity Church in New York City, NY

  21. 19th Century Gothic Revival • Trinity Church, New York City, NY • Designed for a growing and wealthy congregation • Used Decorated Gothic for the church • Features • Extended chancel • Raised altar • Ceiling vaults constructed of plaster rather than stone

  22. 19th Century Gothic Revival http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wcapts2.html

  23. 19th Century Gothic Revival http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wcapts2.html

  24. 19th Century Gothic Revival http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wcapts2.html

  25. 19th Century: The Ecole Des Beaux-Arts • School of Art in France • The Academy of Beaux-Arts in France decided that Classical architecture should supersede Gothic architecture in France during the 19th century • Designed to provide training for students who had usually completed secondary studies and passed an entrance exam

  26. 19th Century: The Ecole Des Beaux-Arts • Richard Morris Hunt (1827 – 1895) • The first American to attend the Ecole Des Beaux-Arts • After his return to New York, he established a practice that prospered greatly until his death • Major structures • The Breakers, Newport • Biltmore, Asheville • Base of the Statue of Liberty

  27. 19th Century: The Ecole Des Beaux-Arts • The Breakers, Newport, Rhode Island • Structure built for the Vanderbilt family in Rhode Island http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wcapts2.html

  28. 19th Century: The Ecole Des Beaux-Arts http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wcapts2.html

  29. 19th Century: The Ecole Des Beaux-Arts http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wcapts2.html

  30. 19th Century: The Ecole Des Beaux-Arts • Biltmore, Asheville, North Carolina • A hunting lodge built for the Vanderbilt’s http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wcapts2.html

  31. 19th Century: The Ecole Des Beaux-Arts http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wcapts2.html

  32. 19th Century: The Ecole Des Beaux-Arts • Base of the Statue of Liberty • 1880 http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wcapts2.html

  33. 19th Century: The Ecole Des Beaux-Arts http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wcapts2.html

  34. 19th Century: The Ecole Des Beaux-Arts http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wcapts2.html

  35. References • Sullivan, Mary; http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/ • http://www.brynmawr.edu/Acads/Cities/wld/wdpt1.html • Trachtenburg/Hyman; Architecture: From Prehistory to Postmodernity • Wodehouse/Moffett; A History of Western Architecture

  36. 19th Century Architecture Architectural History ACT 322 Doris Kemp