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Bismarck’s Foreign Policy. Bismarck’s Foreign Policy Aims before 1870. Make Prussian influence greater than Austria’s amongst the German States (nations – as they were before 1870)

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bismarck s foreign policy aims before 1870

Bismarck’s Foreign Policy Aims before 1870

Make Prussian influence greater than Austria’s amongst the German States (nations – as they were before 1870)

Contain the hostility of France (which had increased as Prussia’s influence over the German States had increased)

bismarck s foreign policy aims for 1871 onwards

Bismarck’s Foreign Policy Aims for 1871 onwards

Maintain the status quo (keep things the same): meaning that:

For B, the kleindeutsch settlement of 1871 was final

his primary aim was to prevent external events from disrupting what he had achieved

bismarck s foreign alliances
Bismarck’s Foreign Alliances

Three Emperors’ League 1873

- Alliance between Germany, Russia and Austria-Hungary.

Dual Alliance 1879

– Germany and Austria-Hungary

Triple Alliance 1882

– Germany, A-H and Italy

Reinsurance Treaty 1887

- Germany and Russia

bismarck s foreign alliances5
Bismarck’s Foreign Alliances

Three Emperors’ League 1873 (renewed 1881) -Alliance between Germany, Russia and Austria-Hungary. Goal of isolating France, who was still upset over the loss of Alsace-Lorraine and wanted ‘revanche’ against Germany.

See Flagship p87 and Access to History p18-19 & p28

bismarck s foreign alliances6
Bismarck’s Foreign Alliances

Dual Alliance 1879 – Germany and Austria-Hungary

– anti-German feelings in Russia following the 1878 Congress of Berlin led to Bismarck wanting to make Germany’s relations with Austria-Hungary more secure.

See Flagship p89 and Access to History p27

bismarck s foreign alliances7
Bismarck’s Foreign Alliances

Triple Alliance 1882 – Germany, A-H and Italy

When the French occupied Tunisia, Bismarck took advantage of Italian resentment towards France and created the Triple Alliance between Germany, Italy and Austria- Hungary

In exchange for Italy's agreement to stay neutral if war broke out between Austria-Hungary and Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary would protect Italy from France.

See Flagship p89 and Access to History p28-29

bismarck s foreign alliances9
Bismarck’s Foreign Alliances
  • Reinsurance Treaty 1887 - Germany and Russia
  • Russia and Austria-Hungary grew suspicious of each other over conflicts in the Balkans. Bismarck repaired the damage to his alliances with a Reinsurance Treaty with Russia, allowing both powers to stay neutral if the other was at war.
  • See Flagship p89-90 and Access to History p31-32