Section 5: Somatoform Disorders. Somatoform Disorders. Somatization – expression of psychological distress through physical symptoms Not intentionally faking illnesses. Conversion Disorder. Experience a change in or loss of physical functioning in a major part of the body
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Somatoform Disorders • Somatization – expression of psychological distress through physical symptoms • Not intentionally faking illnesses
Conversion Disorder • Experience a change in or loss of physical functioning in a major part of the body • No medical explanation
Hypochondriasis • Unhealthy fear of having a serious disease • Become absorbed by minor physical symptoms & sensations • Maintain belief even when reassured by doctors
Explaining Somatoform Disorders • Psychoanalytic Theory – repress emotions associated with forbidden urges and express them instead physically • Behavior Theory – symptoms serve as a reinforcer if they successfully allow a person to escape from anxiety • Recent thoughts – convert psychological stress into actual medical problems • Possible genetic factors
Mood Disorders • Mood changes that are inappropriate or inconsistent with the situations to which one is responding • Very common
A Few Facts on Depression • Annual economic impact of adult depression is estimated at $83 billion in lost productivity • Over the past 50 years, men of all ages have killed themselves at 4 or more times the rate of women • Men often find other coping methods than seeking help (drinking) • Women 3x more likely to attempt suicide • Men 4x more likely to die from suicide
Major Depression • Feelings of helplessness, hopelessness, worthlessness, guilt, great sadness • Multiple symptoms that last at least 2 weeks • Exhibit symptoms nearly every day • Requires immediate attention – 15% of severely depressed commit suicide • Women more likely to be diagnosed • Why?
Symptoms of Depression Need 5 of the 9 symptoms • Persistent depressed mood for most of day • Loss of interest or pleasure in all or most activities • Significant weight loss or gain due to changes in appetite • Sleeping more or less than usual • Speeding up or slowing down of physical and emotional reactions • Fatigue or loss of energy • Feelings of worthlessness or unfounded guilt • Reduced ability to concentrate or make meaningful decisions • Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide
Bipolar Disorder Manic Phase Depressive Phase Lethargy, despair, unresponsive Similar behavior as someone with major depression ___________________________ Some have long intervals of normal behavior in between Others rarely exhibit normal behavior • Inflated self-esteem • Racing thoughts • Difficulty concentrating • extreme excitement characterized by hyperactivity and chaotic behavior • Sometimes accompanied by delusions or hallucinations
Explaining Mood Disorders • Chemical imbalances in neurotransmitters • Treat with anti-depressant drugs • Paxil • Zoloft • Prozac • No accepted test to show imbalance • Not clear why this happens • Psychotherapy helps