Sugar Milan Patel (c, d3) Josh Brown (a,d2) Kyle Dasch (b,d1)
Sugar’s Earliest Record (a) • Sugar was believed to have grown in the wild in Indonesia first. • Alexander the Great found sugar in India around 326 B.C. when he took over part of it • Sugar reached China in 110 B.C. • The mountains and deserts of Afghanistan, Baluchistan, and eastern Persia served as natural barriers against the spread of sugar to other areas for centuries.
Sugar’s Introduction to Europe and Middle East (a) • Sugar reached Persia in the 6th century • Persia transmitted it to all of the areas that it conquered. • Sugar was introduced to Egypt in 641 AD • Soon after it reached Spain in 714 AD by passing through Syria, Cyprus, and Create .
Sugar Trade (a) • The Europeans planted sugar on many of the islands in the Mediterranean and traded with the Islands • Huge plantations on Sicily and Cyprus used slave labor and traded with many of the European countries. • These plantations became an outline for Portagual and Spain when they conqured Africa and Eventually Americas
Sugar Trade (cont.) (a) • Sugar was transported to Africa and was grown their with the help of slaves, the sugar was traded all throughout The Mediterrian • Christopher Columbus took sugar cane on his second voyage to the America’s (1493) • Sugar grew well in the Greater Antilles and was traded with Europe
Sugar Prices (a) • Sugar’s prices fluctuated a lot thorought history • On average in 1796 America, sugar was 25 cents per hundredth • In 1796 France, one pound of sugar was worth 500 francs (francs were highly inflated) • In comparison, Coffee in America was $1 a pound in 1792
Current Sugar Prices (a) • Sugar is currently sold at 54.4 cents a kilogram at the NYSE • Coffee, in comparison is 261.75 cents a pound • Tea is 331.68 cents a kilogram
Cultural References and Influence (b) • The first use of sugar was recorded in 300 BC in India • The people in this region chewed raw sugarcane because they were attracted to the sweet taste of it. They were the first to do this • The word for sugar was sharkara which meant gravel or sand. It got its name because they would melt down the substance and when it was boiled out it looked like gravel or there about
Cultural Refrence and Influences (cont.) (b) • As sugar became more popular, it had a tax placed on it • The Arabs used sugar mills and plantations, they were pioneers of this. • There are numerous forms of sugar known today • In Indian literature sugar is noted as plants that grow along the river
Cultural Refrence and Influences (cont.) (b) • The Atharva Veda described sugar as sweet attractiveness • Today, sugar is starting to replace other sweeteners such as corn syrup • Columbus brought sugarcane from Europe to the New World • Sugar and Molasses Act passed under the British made its citizens to pay a tax for foreign sugar and molasses • Slaves were started to be used for sugar harvesting. Sugarcane plantations for little to no money. Start of Slave Trade
History of Sugar (c) • 512BC Soldiers of Emperor Darius discovered reeds that produced honey without bees, which was later rediscovered by Alexander in 327BC. • 95AD written in a document called Periplus Maris Erythraei which says “Exported commonly....Honey of reeds which is called sakchar”. Probably the first use of sugar cane in an article reference. • pressing and boiling cane to create sugar as such was first done in India about 300 AD. • 540 AD, the Persians had learned sugar making from India • 641 AD, the Arabs conquered Persia, and having learned to cultivate sugar cane, spread it's culture to Egypt, Sicily, Morocco, and Spain, from which sources it reached Europe. • In 950 AD, Al Istakhri wrote extensive irrigation in an area northwest of the Persian Gulf, for sugar cane. He said it was, "Partly used as a food, and partly made into sugar."
History of Sugar (cont.) (c) • 1097 AD, that The many Crusaders died, some found novel nourishment by chewing the sweet reeds called Zucar. • Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, in the 1220's encouraged silk and sugar production. • In 1231 AD, Frederick II, at Melfi, issued "Liber Augustalis", in which, among other things he included laws to foster cultivation of sugar cane. • In 1416 AD Spain took over Sicily and made them pay with sugar exports. • In 1493 AD, Columbus carried sugar cane from the Canaries to Santa Domingo, and by the mid-1500's it's manufacture had spread over the greater part of Tropical America. • By Elizabethan period sugar was cheap, however the best sugar came from Madeira.
Harvest to End of Use (c) • Sugar at first was an alternative use for honey which was the popular sweetener for foods and drinks. • Soldiers first found reeds that produced sweetness without the use of bees, in so they chewed on this reed for the sweet flavor. Eventually was turned into a juice. • Sugar was first crystallized by 300 AD from southeast Asia , as it then became popular in Europe after the crusades. • Sugar cane would be pressed to extract the juices. From there, lime and other acids were added to settle the sugar composition factor. Through evaporation and running it through a crushing boulder, sugar granules and fine sugar was formed.
Harvest to End of Use (cont.) (c) • China established their first sugar refineries during the seventh century. • Arab businessmen adopted the production of sugar from India to develop a large scale industry, by starting with factories, plantations, mills, and refineries. • By 1492, Columbus stopped in the canary islands for refreshments. As he set sail , the Governor of the island gave him sugar cane cuts, which is the first to reach the new world.
Uses of sugar (c) • Sugar was not only used for a sweetener, however it was used to cure sicknesses as well as other implements. • Sugar was commonly used as a natural preservative. The acids in sugar are a great way to store the foods without refrigeration. • Was used also as a cleanser, sugar based cleaning was idealistic. • To the old standards, the better tasting food was usually the sweeter food which pleased most people.
Actions of Gov. to regulate, tax, and control the good (3000 BCE-1300CE)(d1) • 327 BC by Alexander the Great, who spread it's culture through Persia and introduced it in the Mediterranean. • 627 AD, the Greek Emperor Heraclius seized a treasury of sugar in the Royal Palace at Ctesiphon. In 641 AD, the Arabs conquered Persia, and having learned to cultivate sugar cane, spread it's culture to Egypt, Sicily, Morrocco, and Spain, from which sources it reached Europe. • Trade Occured between Europe and the Arabs. • In 950 AD, Al Istakhri wrote of extensive irrigation in an area northwest of the Persian Gulf, for sugar cane. He said it was, "Partly used as a food, and partly made into sugar. • After Roger de Hauteville was crowned King of Sicily in 1130, he recognized quickly that he would need Arab support to survive. This caused or created the need to trade and possess sugar in return for funds
Actions of Gov. to regulate, tax, and control the good (1301-1700) (d2) • Acts of Trade and Navigation (1651), was an act passed my England in the 17th century to tax sugar among other commodities in it’s new colonies • Laws of Burgos (1512-1513) were the first laws in Europe to protect slaves that were being taken away to work on plantations in the Greater Antilles • In 1601, Philip IV barred the use of the indigenous populations in textiles and sugar mills because they suffered high mortality rates. • Many European countries who had just make a stake in the Americas, quickly placed a tariff on sugar, and would only let some of their islands export the sugar to try to make the price inflated.
Actions of Gov. to regulate, tax, and control the good (1701-Present Day) (d3) • Sugar was the most important product to families in England as well as during the mid 1700s. • With sugar, economy went up having less inducing peasants as well as homeless people. • One in six families had fine china, and almost everyone drank out of china at the late 1700s. • Tea, coffee, and chocolate were all consumed using sugar making it a high needed product for people. • During Europe’s colonization of the Americas, the Caribbean became the world’s largest source for sugar as it could be grown and shipped at lower prices with beets and cane rather than Southeast Asia. This rose import from the East. • To regulate and improve revenue for the kingdom, the Sugar act was passed during 1764. This put a six pence per gallon of sugar tax on the people. These tax payments were corrupted and not always followed through. • Beet root, was being used as an alternative to sugar cane to process sugar, virtually made the same thing. • During 1835, a huge burst of the first commercial out break of sugar began. Workers were imported from Asia to work in plantations. • 1960 Us congress passed the Sugar bill which amended the Sugar act of 1948 • Sugar today is still that ingredient that is made in everything however is very cheap as it takes small tools to process the juice.
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Bibliography (cont.) • Ad, By 600. "Sugar History." Lady Margarette's Miscellany. Web. 15 Dec. 2010. <http://maggierose.20megsfree.com/sugar.html • Highly., It. "SKIL - History of Sugar." Sugar Knowledge International Limited SKIL. Web. 15 Dec. 2010. http://www.sucrose.com/lhist.html. • "Sugar - Monthly Price - Commodity Prices." Index Mundi - Country Facts. Web. 15 Dec. 2010. <http://www.indexmundi.com/commodities/?commodity=sugar&months=300>. • Ad, By 600. "Sugar History." Lady Margarette's Miscellany. Web. 15 Dec. 2010. <http://maggierose.20megsfree.com/sugar.html • Highly., It. "SKIL - History of Sugar." Sugar Knowledge International Limited SKIL. Web. 15 Dec. 2010. http://www.sucrose.com/lhist.html. • "Sugar - Monthly Price - Commodity Prices." Index Mundi - Country Facts. Web. 15 Dec. 2010. <http://www.indexmundi.com/commodities/?commodity=sugar&months=300>.