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SUGAR PowerPoint Presentation

SUGAR

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SUGAR

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  1. SUGAR Submarine Gas Hydrate Reservoirs: Exploration, Exploitation and Gas Transport CO2 CH4 Klaus Wallmann and Jörg Bialas

  2. Hydrate Structure CH4× 5.7 H2O Water molecules Gas molecules

  3. Methane Hydrate Stability Gas Hydrate Tishchenko, Hensen, Wallmann & Wong (2005) Buffett & Archer (2004)

  4. Global Methane Hydrate Distribution Observations Source: Makogan et al., 2007

  5. Global Methane Hydrate Distribution Modeling Source: Klauda & Sandler (2005)

  6. Global Methane Hydrate Inventory in the Seabed Klau. (2005) Kven. (1999) Buff. (2004) Best estimate 3000 ± 2000 Gt C Mil. (2004)

  7. Global Methane Hydrate Inventory Coal Oil Gas Hydrate Source: Energy Outlook 2007, Buffett & Archer (2004) Coal, oil, gas: reserves economically exploitable at current market prices Gas Hydrates: total marine inventory

  8. Hydrate Exploitation • Methane gas may be produced from hydrate • deposits via: • Pressure reduction • Temperature increase • Addition of chemicals (incl. CO2)

  9. Hydrate Exploitation Energy balance for Blake Ridge (Makogon et al. 2007) 2000 m water depth, two ~3 m thick hydrate layers ~40 % of the potential energy can be used for energy production ~60 % of the potential energy is lost during development, gas production, gas pressurization and transport Japanese Hydrate Exploitation Program Hydrate exploitation is economically feasible at an oil price of ~54 $/barrel

  10. Gas Hydrates at the Chinese Continental Slope, South China Sea Source: N. Wu (2007, pers. comm.)

  11. Gas Hydrates at the Indian Continental Slope Source: M. V. Lall (2007, pers. comm.)

  12. Storage of CO2 below the Seabed SUGAR Safety, Costs

  13. Phase Diagram of CO2 Risk of leakage decreases with water depth Self-sealing at >350 m

  14. Natural Seepage at the Seafloor -Black Sea Gas Seeps- Source: Naudts et al. (2006)

  15. The SUGAR Project • Funded by German Federal Ministries (BMWi, BMBF) • Funding period: June 2008 – May 2011 • Total funding: ~13 Mio € (incl. support by industries)

  16. The SUGAR Project Prospection A: Exploration A1: Hydroacoustics A2: Geophysics A3: Autoclave-Drilling A4: Basin Modeling B: Exploitation and Transport B1: Reservoir Modeling B2: Laboratory Experiments B3: Gas Transport Exploration Quantification Exploitation/ CO2 Storage Pellet Transport

  17. SUGAR Partners

  18. A1: Hydro-acoustic detection of hydrate deposits - Hydrate deposits are usually formed by gas bubble ascent - Multi-beam echo-sounders will be further developed and used for flare imaging and hydrate location Hydrate Ridge off Oregon

  19. A2: Geo-acoustic imaging of hydrate deposits

  20. A2: Electro-magnetic imaging of hydrate deposits Joint inversion of seismic and electro-magnetic data

  21. A3: Autoclave-drilling technology - develop autoclave technology for MeBo - develop tool for formation independent drilling

  22. A4: Basin Modeling IFM-GEOMAR PetroMod3D (IES)

  23. B1, B2: Exploitation Reservoir modeling and lab experiments

  24. Hydrate Stability in Seawater (CO2 and CH4) Duan & Sun (2006) CO2 hydrates are thermodynamically more stable than CH4 hydrates

  25. CH4(g)-Recovery from Hydrates Exposed to CO2 CO2(l) Kvamme et al. (2007) after 200 h in sandstone CO2(l) Hiromata et al. (1996) after 400 h CO2(g)/N2(g) Park et al. (2006) after 15 h CO2(g) Lee et al. (2003) after 5 h

  26. B1, B2: Exploitation • Options • Addition of CO2(l), only • Addition of CO2(l) and heat from • - deep and warm formation waters (Schlumberger) • - surface water (UMSICHT, mega pump) • - in-situ methane burning (GFZ) • Addition of CO2(l) and polymers (BASF) • Addition of CO2(l) and other gases (IOW) • Exploitation may also be done in two steps • Step: Hydrate dissociation • Step: Injection of CO2(l) to refill the pore space • previously occupied by methane hydrates

  27. B1, B2: Exploitation • Critical issues that need to be addressed: • Sluggish kinetics of gas swapping • Slope stability (avoid steep terrain) • Integrity of the unconsolidated cap sediments (overpressure < 10 bar) • Permeability of reservoir sediments (use sands) • Clogging by CO2 hydrate formation at the • injection point (add polymers or heat) • CO2 content of the produced methane gas • (avoid very high temperatures)

  28. B3: Gas Transport Source: Gudmundsson (NTNU Trondheim), Aker Kvaerner, Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co.

  29. B3: Gas Transport Source: Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co.

  30. SUGAR Technologies

  31. International cooperation • with India, Brasilia, China, Norway, South Korea, US • to apply the SUGAR exploration techniques • to perform a field production test during the second • SUGAR phase starting in summer 2011