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What Is Dyslexia? What are the difficulties? What are the gifts?

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What Is Dyslexia? What are the difficulties? What are the gifts?

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  1. What Is Dyslexia? What are the difficulties? What are the gifts?

  2. Dyslexia Dyslexia • What is dyslexia? dys-lexia • dys—difficulty • lexia—withwords • Why define dyslexia? • Clear up myths and misconceptions • Link the public to information and resources • Enable research on the value of educational treatments

  3. What We KnowFrom Research Thousands of studies have addressed these critical questions: • How does a good reader read? • How do students learn to read? • Why do some students fail to learn easily? • What is the relationship between spoken language and reading? • How can we be most helpful to students with problems?

  4. State Policies Differ • Some states disallow the use of the “d word” • Others, such as Texas and Louisiana, have special rules, funding sources, and policies regarding the identification and treatment of dyslexia • A common definition may help generate more consistent policies across states

  5. Dyslexia Defined Dyslexia Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is oftenunexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. —Lyon, G.R., Shaywitz, S. E., Shaywitz, B.A. (2003). A definition of dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia, 53, 1-14.

  6. Dyslexia Defined Dyslexia • Specific learning disability • Neurobiological in origin • Inaccurate or non-fluent word recognition • Deficit in spelling and decoding abilities • Deficit in phonological component • Often unexpected • Secondary consequences

  7. Dyslexics as Entrepreneurs • A 2007 study found that 35% of people who had begun their own businesses identified themselves as dyslexic • Why? People with dyslexia often excel in: • Problem solving • Delegating authority • Oral communication • Creative thinking

  8. Celebrity Quiz Celebrity Quiz • Albert Einstein • Walt Disney • Gavin Newsom • Winston Churchill • Richard Branson • Tom Cruise

  9. Famous Dyslexics Albert Einstein Thomas Edison Leonardo da Vinci Charles Schwab James Earl Jones Bruce Jenner Greg Louganis Magic Johnson Jackie Stewart Erin Brockovich Jewel Jay Leno Salma Hayek Richard Branson Whoopi Goldberg Orlando Bloom Danny Glover Henry Winkler George S. Patton Ansel Adams Dwight D. Eisenhower Avi Robert Kennedy John Lennon

  10. How might dyslexia affect me in school? • May have difficulty learning to read and spell • When reading, may have to stop to decode unfamiliar words • May have trouble organizing written language • May feel slower than others in reading or completing tests

  11. What can I, as a student, do? • Know myself: what are my strengths and areas of concern? • Believe in myself • Be able to tell someone else what I need to be successful • Be willing to do what it takes to succeed • Be willing to ask for help when needed • Find my passions

  12. “Many times I can see a solution to something differently and quicker than other people. I see the end zone and say, “This is where I want to go.” • Charles Schwab, stockbroker and businessman

  13. Dyslexia Dyslexia • Is a language-based problem • Does not mean seeing things backwards • Exists across all levels of intelligence • Is not caused by a lack of motivation • Occurs at all socioeconomic levels • Occurs slightly more often in boys than in girls • May develop even with good classroom instruction • Often occurs with other disorders

  14. Literacy in Schools • 80-85% of students with an identified specific learning disability have a primary problem with reading and/or language • 10-20%, or 1 out of every 5-10 students, has symptoms of dyslexia —National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2003)

  15. Preschool and Kindergarten • Late learning to talk or slow to learn new words • Trouble producing speech sounds • Avoids letters or confuses them • Cannot recall sounds of letters • Unable to break words into separate speech sounds

  16. Grades K-1 • Trouble learning phonics (sounds of letters) • Low on phoneme awareness tests (taking apart speech sounds in words) • Poor spelling • Cannot remember “sight” words • Poor handwriting

  17. Grades 2-33 Predictable Problems • Cannot recall sight words even after practice • Poor phonics skills • Poor spelling • Speech sounds omitted • Inaccurate recall of speech sounds for letters • Poor recall for even the commonest “little” words

  18. Grades 2-3Additional Problems • Inaccurate and slow oral reading • Comprehension problems arising from poor word recognition • Poor handwriting and/or written expression • Avoidance of reading and writing

  19. Grade 3A Transition Grade • Most reading instruction stops after Gr.3 • Transition to “reading to learn” is expected • Vocabulary harder to determine from context • Denser text, fewer pictures • Longer assignments, more independence expected

  20. Grades 4-6 • Slow on oral reading fluency tests • Inaccurate reading of real & nonsense words • Poor spelling, handwriting & written expression • Avoidance of reading • Weak in reading strategies • Weak reading comprehension when compared to listening comprehension

  21. 4th grade writing sample I was perfectly happy disintegrating in the dark. I heard a scraping then a snap, sunlight flooded in. Ben picked me up in a pile of leaves. I jumped out he caught me I was stuck. Ben showed me to his family. I was flattered from all the ahhs and oohs. I got bagged, boxed and put it in the freezer for 5 months. 23

  22. MaladaptiveCoping Strategies • Avoiding reading and writing • Relying on other sources of information • Becoming hostile or resistant to school • Becoming depressed or anti-social Remediation still crucial. Technology can be a vital tool to cope.

  23. Grades 7-8 • Slow and laborious reading • Overwhelmed by multiple assignments • Cannot work fast enough to cope • Lack of effective strategies for studying • Needs accommodations and modifications • Written work remains a huge problem

  24. High School • Reads slowly • Comprehension and vocabulary may have declined from lack of practice • Writes poorly and with great effort • Needs strategy and study skills instruction • Needs accommodations and modifications • May need foreign language exemption if accommodations do not provide enough support • Delivery of remedial instruction still critical

  25. Screening for Dyslexia • Timed tests of letter naming or letter-sound associations in kindergarten and early first grade • Phoneme awareness tasks in kindergarten and beginning first grade level • Direct measures of decoding and word recognition toward the middle and end of first grade and beyond • Oral reading fluency, a timed test that combines reading rate and accuracy, once the student can read connected text

  26. Social/EmotionalConsequences • Frustration, fear, anxiety • Learned/chronic helplessness • Avoidance behaviors/misbehaviors • Trouble expressing self in social situations • Feelings of inadequacy

  27. Characteristics of theSuccessful Student with Dyslexia • Ability to solve problems and navigate in spite of the learning difficulty • Repertoire of effective strategies • Independent use of strategies • Resilience • Flexibility • Self-monitoring, self-advocacy

  28. Characteristics of theSuccessful Student with Dyslexia • One or more strengths that provide success and bolster self esteem • Strong, constant, supportive relationship with at least one adult who believes in the child’s worth and capabilities • Role model, advocate, mentor, charismatic other

  29. The Team Approach • Student • Parents/Guardians • Classroom Teacher • School Psychologist • Speech & Language Pathologist • Academic Therapist • Content Area Teachers • Reading Specialist • Intervention Specialist • Occupational Therapist

  30. Essential Componentsof Effective Reading Instruction • Phonemic awareness • Phonics and word recognition • Fluency • Vocabulary • Comprehension • Speaking and listening • Written expression

  31. Successful Instruction Includes… Multisensory learning: Children engage in learning language concepts and other information using their eyes, ears, hands, mouths, and sometimes whole bodies Visual • Auditory • Tactile • Kinesthetic

  32. The Successful Individual • Self-advocates, and is self-aware • Accesses resources as needed • Connects with a mentor or role model • Strives for life-long learning • Discovers and maximizes personal strengths

  33. Early identification • Explicit, systematic instruction • Progress-monitoring • Comprehensive programming • Student self-advocacy = Literacy! How do we put it all together?

  34. “My mother was the making of me. She was so true, so sure of me and I felt I had someone to live for, someone I must not disappoint.” Thomas Edison

  35. For More Information Northern California Branch of The International Dyslexia Association P. O. Box 5010 San Mateo, CA 94402 • Phone: 650-328-7667 • www.dyslexia-ncbida.org