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Dyslexia

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  1. Dyslexia By: Michal Remer

  2. Quick Facts: • 15-20 % of people affected • Dyslexia does not discriminate • Dyslexia is mostly hereditary

  3. Quick Facts: • Difficulty with reading, writing and other language based tasks • Reading/seeing words backwards is a common misconception

  4. So What is Dyslexia? Here is a small cartoon to begin illustrating the idea:

  5. The Dyslexia Paradox

  6. The Dyslexia Paradox

  7. The Dyslexia Paradox

  8. A Precise Definition: Divided into 5 parts

  9. Dyslexia...

  10. 1. is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin.

  11. 1. is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. This means that the disability originates in the brain.

  12. 2. Difficulties associated with Dyslexia typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language.

  13. 2. Difficulties associated with Dyslexia typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language. This means a person with dyslexia typically has an impairment in the area of their brain that is responsible for breaking apart and processing the basic structure of words (phonemes).

  14. 3. Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities.

  15. 3. Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. This means that people with dyslexia often have difficulty identifying real words and/or doing so in a fluent (effortless) manner.

  16. 3. Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. They have trouble spelling words and decoding (that is, breaking apart/ pronouncing) the ones they are not familiar with.

  17. 3. Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. This includes nonsense words –words that are phonetically “decodable” but not part of the lexicon.

  18. 4. The phonological deficits that Dyslexics face are often unexpected in relation to their other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction.

  19. 4. The phonological deficits that Dyslexics face are often unexpected in relation to their other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. This means that their impairment has no relation to their overall intelligence or their ability to respond well to effective classroom instruction. In fact, most people with dyslexia have average to above average intelligence.

  20. 4. The phonological deficits that Dyslexics face are often unexpected in relation to their other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. The conventional nature of classroom instruction today though, does not necessarily imply effective instruction for dyslexic students – and this is one of the reasons why dyslexia is considered a learning disability

  21. 5. Secondary consequences of Dyslexia may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.

  22. 3 Types of Dyslexia

  23. 3 Types of Dyslexia Type: Example:

  24. 3 Types of Dyslexia Type: Example: • Dysnemkinesia (motor dyslexia) • Difficulty remembering how to do the movements needed for writing.

  25. 3 Types of Dyslexia Type: Example: • Dysnemkinesia (motor dyslexia) • Difficulty remembering how to do the movements needed for writing. • Difficulties with symbol orientations • Confusion between  b/d/p/q/ • Transposing words (written/writing) and syllables (speech) • Form/from, angle/angel, clam/calm

  26. 3 Types of Dyslexia Type: Example: • Dysnemkinesia (motor dyslexia) • Difficulty remembering how to do the movements needed for writing. • Difficulties with symbol orientations • Confusion between  b/d/p/q/ • Transposing words (written/writing) and syllables (speech) • Form/from, angle/angel, clam/calm

  27. 3 Types of Dyslexia Type: Example: • Dysnemkinesia (motor dyslexia) • Difficulty remembering how to do the movements needed for writing. • Difficulties with symbol orientations • Confusion between  b/d/p/q • Transposing words (written/writing) and syllables (speech) • Form/from, angle/angel, clam/calm • Letter reversals • Saw/was, reed/deer (sequential) Ƨ/S, Я/R, C/ɔ, ∃/E, µ/u, N/и(mirror writing)

  28. 3 Types of Dyslexia Type: Example: • Dysnemkinesia (motor dyslexia) • Difficulty remembering how to do the movements needed for writing. • Difficulties with symbol orientations • Confusion between  b/d/p/q • Transposing words (written/writing) and syllables (speech) • Form/from, angle/angel, clam/calm • Letter reversals • Saw/was, reed/deer (sequential) Ƨ/S, Я/R, C/ɔ, ∃/E, µ/u, N/и(mirror writing) • Spatial difficulties • Left/right, directions • Poor sight recognition • Trouble building up sight vocabulary • Relies on reading and spelling phonetically

  29. 3 Types of Dyslexia Type: Example: • Dysphonesia (auditory dyslexia) • Difficulty with phonological component of language.

  30. Reader without Dysphonesia

  31. Brain Comparison

  32. Brain without Dysphonesia

  33. 3 Types of Dyslexia Type: Example: • Dysphonesia (auditory dyslexia) • Difficulty with phonological component of language. • Cannot decode words phonetically

  34. Reader with Dysphonesia

  35. Brain with Dysphonesia

  36. 3 Types of Dyslexia Dysphonesia: Example: • Dysphonesia (auditory dyslexia) • Difficulty with phonological component of language. • Cannot decode words phonetically • Difficulty identifying/make sense of novel or unfamiliar words

  37. 3 Types of Dyslexia Dysphonesia: Example: • Dysphonesia (auditory dyslexia) • Difficulty with phonological component of language. • Cannot decode words phonetically • Difficulty identifying/make sense of novel or unfamiliar words • Learns the word deal, but gets mixed up with new word seal and can’t read the word dealing.

  38. 3 Types of Dyslexia Dysphonesia: Example: • Dysphonesia (auditory dyslexia) • Difficulty with phonological component of language. • Cannot decode words phonetically • Difficulty identifying/make sense of novel or unfamiliar words • Learns the word deal, but gets mixed up with new word seal and can’t read the word dealing. • Student tends to rely on memory

  39. 3 Types of Dyslexia Dysphonesia: Example: • Dys-phon-esia (auditory dyslexia) • Difficulty with phonological component of language. • Cannot decode words phonetically • Difficulty identifying/make sense of novel or unfamiliar words • Learns the word deal, but gets mixed up with new word seal and can’t read the word dealing. • Student tends to rely on memory • Chaotic spelling • Confusion between similar looking letters • Aminal/animal

  40. 3 Types of Dyslexia Dysphonesia: Example: • Dysphonesia (auditory dyslexia) • Difficulty with phonological component of language. • Cannot decode words phonetically • Difficulty identifying/make sense of novel or unfamiliar words • Learns the word deal, but gets mixed up with new word seal and can’t read the word dealing. • Student tends to rely on memory • Chaotic spelling • Confusion between similar looking letters • Aminal/animal • Confusion between similar words

  41. 3 Types of Dyslexia Dysphonesia: Example: • Dysphonesia (auditory dyslexia) • Difficulty with phonological component of language. • Cannot decode words phonetically • Difficulty identifying/make sense of novel or unfamiliar words • Learns the word deal, but gets mixed up with new word seal and can’t read the word dealing. • Student tends to rely on memory • Chaotic spelling • Confusion between similar looking letters • Aminal/animal • Confusion between similar words • Volcano/tornado.

  42. 3 Types of Dyslexia Type: Example: • Dyseidesia (visual dyslexia) • Difficulty with whole word recognition and visual analysis, particularly with visual processing.

  43. 3 Types of Dyslexia Type: Example: • Dyseidesia (visual dyslexia) • Difficulty with whole word recognition and visual analysis, particularly with visual processing. • Poor visual memory • Relies on spelling and decoding words phonetically • Reading is laborious Frequent spelling errors Writes rede /ready, enuf /enough Increased decoding errors Reads log instead of laugh Difficulty differentiating b/w visual patterns, recalling things in sequential order, telling things apart from large r visual field Where’s Waldo Cluttered blackboard

  44. 3 Types of Dyslexia Type: Example: • Dyseidesia (visual dyslexia) • Difficulty with whole word recognition and visual analysis, particularly with visual processing. • Poor visual memory • Relies on spelling and decoding words phonetically • Reading is laborious • Frequent spelling errors • Writes rede /ready, enuf /enough Increased decoding errors Reads log instead of laugh Difficulty differentiating b/w visual patterns, recalling things in sequential order, telling things apart from large r visual field Where’s Waldo Cluttered blackboard

  45. 3 Types of Dyslexia Type: Example: • Dyseidesia (visual dyslexia) • Difficulty with whole word recognition and visual analysis, particularly with visual processing. • Poor visual memory • Relies on spelling and decoding words phonetically • Reading is laborious • Frequent spelling errors • Writes rede /ready, enuf /enough • Increased decoding errors • Reads log instead of laugh Difficulty differentiating b/w visual patterns, recalling things in sequential order, telling things apart from large r visual field Where’s Waldo Cluttered blackboard

  46. 3 Types of Dyslexia Type: Example: • Dyseidesia (visual dyslexia) • Difficulty with whole word recognition and visual analysis, particularly with visual processing. • Poor visual memory • Relies on spelling and decoding words phonetically • Reading is laborious • Frequent spelling errors • Writes rede /ready, enuf /enough • Increased decoding errors • Reads log instead of laugh • Difficulty differentiating b/w visual patterns, recalling things in sequential order, telling things apart from larger visual field • Where’s Waldo • Cluttered blackboard = disorientation

  47. 7 Patterns of Dyslexia

  48. Other Difficulties: Blurring and Distortion of words Concluding paragraph. Essential for structuring and writing an essay is, of course, deciding what to say, how to go about assessing a particular argument for the purpose of constructing an interpretation of it. Th is co ursewillstrivetoeqpstudentswith bas iccritical t hinkingan d essaywri ting skills. Understanding complex sentences, (especially in testing situation) I will meet you for lunch unless you call to cancel. It would be easier to say: I will meet you for lunch. Call if you need to cancel.

  49. Other Difficulties: Understanding negative sentences Which one was not there? What aspect cannot be understood? Reading small print below 12-13 pt font Reading poor quality photocopies Reading on white paper Confusion with math symbols Reading the teacher’s writing if not written very clearly “½ “could look like “y2” “At” may look like “A+”

  50. So What Can Teachers Do to Help Their Students With Dyslexia? IEPS Accommodations Modifications specialized Tutoring & reading programs