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Chapter 17. The Respiratory System. Introduction. Organs: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs Respiration: exchange of O 2 / CO 2 between atmosphere, blood and cells Cardiovascular and respiratory systems work together to supply O 2 to and remove CO 2 from cells.

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chapter 17

Chapter 17

The Respiratory System

introduction
Introduction
  • Organs: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
  • Respiration: exchange of O2 / CO2 between atmosphere, blood and cells
  • Cardiovascular and respiratory systems work together to supply O2 to and remove CO2 from cells
the anatomy and functions of the nose cont d1
The Anatomy and Functions of the Nose (cont’d.)
  • External nares: openings into the nose
  • Internal nares: connect nose and pharynx
  • Coarse hairs line the vestibules
    • Filter large dust particles
the anatomy and functions of the nose cont d2
The Anatomy and Functions of the Nose (cont’d.)
  • Three shelves: formed by turbinate bones
    • Superior, middle and inferior meatus
  • Olfactory receptors: located in the superior meatus
  • Functions of internal nose
    • Warm and moisturize air, smell, speech tone
the structure and functions of the pharynx cont d
The Structure and Functions of the Pharynx (cont’d.)
  • Functions
    • Passageway for food
    • Passageway for air
    • Resonating chamber for speech
the structure and functions of the pharynx cont d1
The Structure and Functions of the Pharynx (cont’d.)
  • Divisions
    • Nasopharynx: internal nares and eustachian tubes
    • Oropharynx: connection to mouth (fauces)
    • Laryngopharynx: connects with esophagus and larynx
the larynx or voice box cont d
The Larynx or Voice Box (cont’d.)
  • Supporting cartilage
    • Thyroid cartilage: largest, Adam’s apple
    • Epiglottis: prevents food and liquids from entering trachea
    • Cricoid: connects with first tracheal ring
    • Arytenoid: attach to vocal cords and laryngeal muscles
    • Corniculate and cuneiform: connect epiglottis to arytenoid cartilage
the larynx or voice box cont d1
The Larynx or Voice Box (cont’d.)
  • Form and function
    • Mucous membrane: two pairs of folds
      • False vocal cords
      • True vocal cords
    • Glottis: opening over true vocal cords
    • Sound produced by air vibrating vocal cords
the trachea or windpipe cont d
The Trachea or Windpipe (cont’d.)
  • Tubular passageway for air
    • Anterior to esophagus
    • Extends from cricoid cartilage to fifth thoracic vertebra
  • Pseudostratified epithelium with cilia and goblet cells
  • Smooth muscle and connective tissue
  • Supporting cartilage: stack of Cs
the trachea or windpipe cont d1
The Trachea or Windpipe (cont’d.)
  • Cough reflex stimulated by foreign object
  • Tracheostomy done if object cannot be expelled
    • Usually done between second and third tracheal cartilages
    • Can be closed when object removed
the bronchi and the bronchial tree cont d1
The Bronchi and the Bronchial Tree (cont’d.)
  • Trachea branches into left and right primary bronchi
  • Primary bronchi branch into secondary bronchi
  • Secondary bronchi branch into tertiary bronchi
the bronchi and the bronchial tree cont d2
The Bronchi and the Bronchial Tree (cont’d.)
  • Tertiary bronchi branch into bronchioles
  • Bronchioles branch into terminal bronchioles
the anatomy and function of the lungs cont d
The Anatomy and Function of the Lungs (cont’d.)
  • Pleural membrane: encloses and protects lungs
    • Parietal pleura: outer
    • Visceral pleura: inner
    • Pleural cavity: between pleura, prevents friction
  • Pleurisy: inflammation of parietal pleura
the anatomy and function of the lungs cont d1
The Anatomy and Function of the Lungs (cont’d.)
  • Segments: supplied by each tertiary bronchi
  • Lobules
    • Wrapped in elastic connective tissue
    • Each has: lymphatic, arteriole, venule, bronchioles
  • Terminal bronchioles subdivide into respiratory bronchioles
the anatomy and function of the lungs cont d2
The Anatomy and Function of the Lungs (cont’d.)
  • Respiratory bronchioles divide into alveolar ducts
  • Alveoli surround the alveolar ducts
    • Grapelike outpouching
    • Surrounded by capillary network
  • Respiratory gases pass through alveolar-capillary membrane
    • Coated with surfactant: reduces surface tension
the respiration process cont d
The Respiration Process (cont’d.)
  • Ventilation or breathing
    • Inhalation
      • Diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract
      • Pressure decreases in lungs: air rushes in
    • Exhalation
      • Diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax
      • Pressure increases in lungs: air rushes out
the respiration process cont d1
The Respiration Process (cont’d.)
  • External respiration
    • Exchange of gases between lungs and blood
  • Internal respiration
    • Exchange of gases between blood and body cells
the respiration process cont d2
The Respiration Process (cont’d.)
  • Partial pressure of gas
    • Amount of pressure gas contributes to total pressure
    • Directly proportional to concentration of gas
  • Gas diffuses from high partial pressure to low partial pressure
the respiration process cont d3
The Respiration Process (cont’d.)
  • Lung capacity
    • Functional residual capacity: volume of gas in lungs at the end of a normal tidal volume exhalation
    • Inspiratory capacity: maximum volume of gas that can be inhaled from end of resting exhalation
    • Total lung capacity: volume of gas in lungs at end of maximum inspiration
the respiration process cont d4
The Respiration Process (cont’d.)
  • Lung capacity (cont’d.)
    • Vital capacity: maximum volume of air that can be expelled at normal rate of exhalation after a maximum inspiration
animation respiration
Animation - Respiration

[Insert respiration.swf]

animation intercostal retractions
Animation – Intercostal Retractions
  • The following animation illustrates how a restricted airway reduces pressure within the chest cavity, causing the intercostal muscles to move inward, or retract

[Insert IntercostalRetractions.swf]

animation asthma
Animation - Asthma
  • Read the Health Alert on Asthma in your textbook.
  • Now watch the asthma animation.
  • [Insert AsthmaFinal.swf]
summary
Summary
  • Named the organs of the respiratory system and their functions
  • Discussed the parts of the nose, the pharynx, the larynx and the trachea
  • Described the bronchial tree
  • Discussed the structure and function of the lungs including gas exchange
  • Described the respiratory process