American Exploration - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. American Exploration …wait, what?

  2. ESSENTIAL QUESTION How did the voyages of Christopher Columbus forever change the world?

  3. Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica • Mayans, Toltecs, Aztecs, Incas • Subsistence Agriculture – Provides enough for the basic needs of the people growing it. • Polytheism • Geography – Mountainous • How did this affect farming? Terracing • Incan road system with footbridges • Important Cities • Tenochtitlan • Machu Picchu • Both highly developed & organized

  4. Exploration • New routes to east desired; Inquiry during Renaissance led to ocean exploration • Spain & Portugal led the way • Christopher Columbus • Thought he could sail west & reach Asia • Columbian Exchange – Exchange of ideas & goods between Europe & Americas • Vasco da Gama – Discovered all-water route to India • Ferdinand Magellan – Proved conclusively that world was round

  5. Conquests Spanish came to conquer & convert natives, seize gold/silver/resources Hernando Cortes – Attacked Aztecs & won because of technological advances Francisco Pizarro – Attacked Incas & won because of technological advances

  6. Conquests • Gold sent to Spain making it the largest power in Europe • Encomienda System – Natives used as slaves to work land owned by Spanish • Social Hierarchy • Peninsulares – Land owners from Spain • Creoles – Spanish ancestry but born in New World • Mestizos – Mixed Spanish & Native ancestry • Natives

  7. Other European Colonial Empires • New France – Covered ¾ of North America • New Netherland – Fort Orange & New Amsterdam (Leading trade center) • English Colonies • Jamestown – Virginia (Looking for Gold) • Plymouth Rock – Pilgrims (Protestant Group) • Massachusetts Bay – Puritans (Religious Freedom)

  8. Atlantic Slave Trade Needed workers in colonized areas Captured by stronger African tribes, brought to West Africa, traded for goods Middle Passage – Voyage across Atlantic where many slaves died due to horrible conditions Worked sugar fields, tobacco fields, or cotton fields

  9. Legacy of Atlantic Slave Trade Encouraged African Warfare – Tribes could trade captures slaves to gain wealth & supplies. Disrupted African Culture – Destroyed Africa’s rich heritage, & caused violence & bitterness. Increased Cultural Diffusion – Exchange of ideas & goods increased. Slave traders brought weapons & goods, slaves brought beliefs, legends, & music.

  10. Mercantilism EUROPEAN COUNTRIES Shipped finished goods Colonies Shipped raw materials Belief that wealth & power based on amassing gold & silver Wealth had to be obtained through trade and warfare European kings hoped to increase their power

  11. Triangular Trade EUROPEAN MERCHANTS Cotton goods, weapons, liquor COLONIES Plantation goods MIDDLE PASSAGE AFRICA Slaves

  12. Africa Europeans had explored parts of Africa, but were stopped because of the topography, or physical features of the continent Most African civilizations had economies based on trade

  13. Trade Countries were more successful in trade when they had access to waterways Capitalism (Trade & industry controlled by private owners motivated by profit) developed due to successful trading Travelers helped to stimulate an increase in trade too

  14. ESSENTIAL QUESTION How did the voyages of Christopher Columbus forever change the world?