slide1 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Safety Planning 101 & The Chaperone Program PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Safety Planning 101 & The Chaperone Program

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 110

Safety Planning 101 & The Chaperone Program - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 149 Views
  • Uploaded on

Safety Planning 101 & The Chaperone Program . Presenters. Tanya L. Snyder, M.Ed., LMHC Director of Juvenile Services Timothy L. Sinn, M.A., LMHC Executive Clinical Director The Counseling and Psychotherapy Center, Inc. . Learning Objectives .

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Safety Planning 101 & The Chaperone Program' - shakira


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
presenters
Presenters
  • Tanya L. Snyder, M.Ed., LMHC
  • Director of Juvenile Services
  • Timothy L. Sinn, M.A., LMHC
  • Executive Clinical Director
  • The Counseling and Psychotherapy Center, Inc.
learning objectives
Learning Objectives

1. To learn how to understand risk and develop appropriate safety plans.

2. To provide workshop participants with a

working knowledge and understanding of

the Chaperone Program and its role in

community safety and re-integration.

3. To provide outlines of both Safety Plans and

Chaperone Program development.

slide5

Safety Planning 101 is designed to provide an overview of how risk in youth is understood and treated, including through the use of safety plan development for risky situations the youth encounters. The Chaperone Program is designed to provide another level of supervision to clients by educating their support network about sexually inappropriate behaviors and the skills needed to provide increased assistance to these youth while in the community. This program creates another layer of supervision and monitoring while in situations that are deemed risky to a particular youth. Safety Plans and The Chaperone Program are utilized to increase victim and public safety and to increase client’s ability to successfully self-regulate and re-integrate into society.

cpc overview
CPC Overview

The Counseling & Psychotherapy Center, Inc. (CPC) is an agency comprised of clinicians, victim advocates and criminal justice professionals who operate specialized management and treatment programs in many locations throughout the United States for those who have displayed sexually inappropriate and abusive behaviors. We specialize in setting up services in communities who express a need to reduce risk.

slide7

We currently operate in 7 states - Oregon, California, Maine,

Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York and North Dakota.

Services vary from state to state.

  • Juveniles and adults
  • Males and females
  • Institutions
  • Community
  • Probation/parole
  • Self-referred
  • Family
  • Individual
  • Marathon sessions
  • Group therapy
  • EMDR, PPG’s, Abels, Behavioral Treatment, Polygraphs
  • Juvenile group home in California
slide8

CPC developed the R.U.L.E. Treatment Program and brings specialized services to people who have acted out in a sexual manner.

slide9

R.U.L.E

Responsibility:The impact the child’s behavior has had on those he hurt, himself, and others.

Understanding:Theexperiences and decisions that have led to this point.

Learning:New patterns of appropriate behavior.

Experience:The benefit of using new skills in relating to others and in managing strong negative emotional states.

slide10

“When healthy or normative sexual behavior is not understood, professionals and parents may worry that sexual behavior in a child is a sign of undetected sexual victimization. More recently, sexually aggressive behavior is sometimes viewed as a signal for perpetrating sexual violence. It is essential that professionals understand sexual behaviors in children to determine how best to respond to a child's behavior and, when appropriate, clarify what treatment is needed.”

David Prescott, LICSW- “Understanding the Sexual Behavior of Children” NEARI Newsletter, May 2009

sexual development birth age 5
Sexual Development Birth - Age 5
  • Taking off clothes- not modest.
  • Rubbing/Touching own genitals (begins in infancy).
  • Curiosity about familiar adults and children’s private parts-learning about male and female differences.
  • May expose self to and try to look at or touch others who are familiar, but redirects easily.
  • Asks about genitals, breasts and babies.
  • Erections begin in infancy, so does lubrication in females.
  • Interested in bathroom behavior of others, again as it relates to differences and function.
  • Interest in own feces.
  • Plays house, role playing male & female roles-marriage. May begin to play doctor.
slide13

Funny Quote(Taken from “Everything you NEVER wanted your kids to know about SEX (but were afraid they’d ask)” by Justin Richardson, M.D. AND Mark A. Shuster, M.D, PH.D.

“Look at my wiener! I can make it stand up. I rub it and it stands up and it feels good. Sometimes I rub it a lot and it feels very, very good.”

(Three year old boy in the Masters and Johnson Files)

sexual development ages 6 9
Sexual Development: Ages 6-9
  • Sexual behaviors begin to be more “out of sight” of others.
  • Modesty begins around age 6 - desire for privacy around bathing and dressing.
  • Show interest in own and other’s bodies. May seek out understanding of organs and functions.
  • Continue to play house, exploring relationships such as marriage, partnerships. Also play looking or touching games, like truth or dare or doctor without penetration or oral sexual contact. Increase in physical arousal (9+).
  • Touching/rubbing own genitals. Masturbation for age 9 +
  • Feelings about opposite sex become more ambivalent. May begin to have relationships that are short-lived with little personal involvement. Feel attraction (9+ years old).
  • Imitate behaviors such as holding hands, kissing & dating.
  • May tell sexual jokes/use sexual words with peers-written or spoken. Often accompanied by giggling.
sexual development ages10 12
Sexual Development: Ages10-12
  • Masturbation
  • Increased sexual drive and interest and fantasies involving acts.
  • Increased sexual activity with same aged peers- sexual talking, touching, kissing & genital rubbing. Some includes same sexed peers-this does not reflect sexual orientation- it is developmental.
  • Some begin to view pornographic magazines/material with peers.
  • Puberty begins around 9-10 years old for most girls. (6/7-13 typical range) Boys typically around 11, (average range 9-14 years old).
  • Self-conscious about bodies.
  • Desire for privacy when undressing.
  • Increase in questions about sex, sex organs & functions.
  • Group dating, individuals pairing within the group, dancing, playing kissing games, dry humping.
  • Increased sexual jokes and behaviors such as mooning.
slide16

Funny Quote(Taken from “Everything you NEVER wanted your kids to know about SEX (but were afraid they’d ask)” by Justin Richardson, M.D. AND Mark A. Shuster, M.D, PH.D.

“In 1943, one research group interviewed 291 boys to find out what it was that gave them erections. The boys dutifully provided an exhaustive list. It included, among other highlights, sitting in class, sitting in church, sitting in warm sand, and setting a field on fire. The national anthem was also responsible for a few erections. So was finding money (understandable) and, for a few unfortunates, being asked to go to the front of the class. Good grades and hurricanes do indeed give Max erections, but at age ten, there are a few new items on the list. Like underwear ads.” (By the way the same applies to girls).

sexual development ages 13 18
Sexual Development: Ages 13-18
  • Masturbation (Up to once/day).
  • Engaging in oral sex and intercourse with partners, much like adults.
  • Use of pornographic materials.
  • Relationships with others are the focus.
  • More focus on establishing emotional attachments in relationships as one matures. Romantic Love.
how to identify inappropriate sexual behavior
How to Identify Inappropriate Sexual Behavior
  • Using sexual language beyond age- may mean exposure to sexual material.
  • Sexual acting out behavior in school other public places.
  • One of the children was more than 2 years older.
  • One of the children was bigger or more powerful than the other, regardless of age.
  • One of the children was more aggressive than the other, regardless of age.
  • One of the children used bribes, tricks, force or threats to gain compliance.
how to identify inappropriate sexual behavior20
How to Identify Inappropriate Sexual Behavior
  • One of the children has been involved in sexual behaviors previously and continued even though told to stop.
  • Children are simulating adult sexual behaviors. Trying to get another child or adult nude or to engage older children/adults in sexual behaviors.
  • The sexual contact was intrusive such as oral, vaginal or anal penetration.
  • Excessively provocative behaviors.
  • Children engaging in non age appropriate sexual behaviors.
  • Children involved do not have an ongoing relationship of any kind.
how to identify inappropriate sexual behavior21
How to Identify Inappropriate Sexual Behavior
  • Overly attentive behavior towards younger children

(3 years younger or more).

  • Adolescents who make repeated calls to sex talk lines or talk to others using extensive sexual talk.
  • Stealing of underwear or other intimate objects.
  • Exposing of genitals to others.
  • Adolescents who are regularly seen masturbating.
  • Behavior that appears to be obsessive or compulsive.
  • Adolescents encouraging the use of drugs/alcohol in order to obtain sexual contact with peer aged partner.
how to identify inappropriate sexual behavior22
How to Identify Inappropriate Sexual Behavior
  • Others are complaining about the behaviors.
  • When anger is a part of the sexual behaviors.
  • When a child uses distortions to explain behaviors (for example, she liked it- although crying).
  • Sexual contact with animals.
  • Viewing pornography or others having sex, prior to age 11. (Burton, MATSA/MASOC 2011: Sexual Offending children see twice as much pornography post age 10 that delinquent peers).
  • Secrecy is involved. This is different than privacy.
  • Presence of STD’s- may be being molested.
slide23

“However, normative (or expected) sexual behaviors are usually not overtly sexual, are more exploratory and playful in nature, do not show a preoccupation with sexual interactions, and are not hostile, aggressive, or hurtful to self or others.”

RECOGNIZING HEALTHY AND UNHEALTHYSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDRENby Phil Rich, Ed.D., LICSWExcerpt taken from Selfhelp Magazine Online- Dated 4/29/02

take away points
Take away points…
  • Adolescents (13-17) who act out sexually are NOT “mini-adults” and should NOT be treated as such.
  • Children with sexual behavior problems (12 and under) are a whole different category as well. These are NOT “mini adolescents” either and should NOT be treated as such.
slide26

Children with Sexual Behavior Problems (Under 12 years Old)Information taken from- Report of the ATSA Task Force on Children With Sexual Behavior Problems

  • The Task Force defines children with SBP as children ages 12 and younger who initiate behaviors involving sexual body parts (i.e., genitals, anus, buttocks, or breasts) that are developmentally inappropriate or potentially harmful to themselves or others. Although the term sexual is used, the intentions and motivations for these behaviors may or may not be related to sexual gratification or sexual stimulation. The behaviors may be related to curiosity, anxiety, imitation, attention seeking, self-calming, or other reasons (Silovsky & Bonner, 2003).
  • It is important to distinguish SBP from normal childhood

sexual play and exploration.

slide27

Children with Sexual Behavior Problems (Under 12 years Old)Information taken from- Report of the ATSA Task Force on Children With Sexual Behavior Problems

  • In determining whether sexual behavior is inappropriate, it is important to consider whether the behavior is common or rare for the child’s developmental stage and culture; the frequency of the behaviors; the extent to which sex and sexual behavior has become a preoccupation for the child; and whether the child responds to normal correction from adults or continues to occur unabated after normal corrective efforts. In determining whether the behavior involves potential for harm, it is important to consider the age/developmental differences of the children involved; any use of force, intimidation, or coercion; the presence of any emotional distress in the children involved; if the behavior appears to be interfering with the children’s social development; and if the behavior causes physical injury (Araji, 1997; Hall, Mathews, & Pearce, 1998; Johnson, 2004).
slide28

Children with Sexual Behavior Problems (Under 12 years Old) ContinuedInformation taken from- Report of the ATSA Task Force on Children With Sexual Behavior Problems

  • Childhood sexual behavior problems (SBP) can range widely in their degree of severity and potential harm to other children. Although some features are common, virtually no characteristic is universal and there is no profile or constellation of factors characterizing these children.
  • Given the diversity of children with SBP, most intervention decisions including decisions about removal, placement, notifying others, reporting, legal adjudication, and restrictions on contact with other children should be made carefully and on a case-by-case basis. Because children and their circumstances can change rapidly, decisions should be reviewed and revised regularly.
slide29

Children with Sexual Behavior Problems (Under 12 years Old) ContinuedInformation taken from- Report of the ATSA Task Force on Children With Sexual Behavior Problems

  • Despite considerable concern about progression on to later adolescent and adult sexual offending, the available evidence suggests that children with SBP are at very low risk to commit future sex offenses, especially if provided with appropriate treatment. After receiving appropriate short-term outpatient treatment, children with SBP have been found to be at no greater long-term risk for future sex offenses than other clinic children (2%-3%).
  • On the whole, children with SBP appear to respond well and quickly to treatment, especially basic cognitive-behavioral or psycho-educational interventions that also involve parents/caregivers. Intensive and restrictive treatments for SBP appear to be required only occasionally or rarely.
slide30

Why do kids develop sexual behavior problems?Information taken from- Report of the ATSA Task Force on Children With Sexual Behavior Problems

  • Children who have been sexually abused do engage in a higher frequency of sexual behaviors than children who have not been sexually abused (Friedrich, 1993; Friedrich, Trane & Gully, 2005), and sexual abuse histories have been found in high percentages of children with SBP (Johnson, 1988,1989; Friedrich,1988).
  • The last decade of research suggests that many children with broadly defined sexual behavior problems have no known history of sexual abuse (Bonner, Walker, & Berliner, 1999; Silovsky & Niec, 2002).
slide31

Why do kids develop sexual behavior problems?Information taken from- Report of the ATSA Task Force on Children With Sexual Behavior Problems

  • Current theories emphasize that the origins and maintenance of childhood SBP include familial, social, economic and developmental factors (Friedrich, 2001, 2003). Contributing factors appear to include sexual abuse but also physical abuse, neglect, substandard parenting practices, exposure to sexually explicit media, living in a highly sexualized environment, and exposure to family violence (Friedrich, Davies, Feher, & Wright, 2003).
  • Hereditary also may be a contributing factor (Langstrom, Grann & Lichtenstein, 2002).
slide32

Why do kids develop sexual behavior problems?Information taken from- Report of the ATSA Task Force on Children With Sexual Behavior Problems

  • For some children, SBP may be one part of an overall pattern of disruptive behavior problems (Friedrich, in press; Friedrich et al. 2003; Pithers, Gray, Busconi, & Houchens, 1998), rather than an isolated or specialized behavioral disturbance.
assessment

Assessment

Children with SBP

slide34

Risk principle: Match the level of service to the offender’s risk to re-offend. Need principle: Assess criminogenic needs and target them in treatment. Responsivity principle: Maximize the offender’s ability to learn from a rehabilitative intervention by providing cognitive behavioral treatment and tailoring the intervention to the learning style, motivation, abilities and strengths of the offender.

(Andrews & Bonta, 2006)

slide35

Assessment of Youth with Sexual Behavior Problems(Parenting Assessment: A Tool For Youth Offending Teams, developed by Clem Henricson, Dr. John Coleman, Dr. Debi Roker for the Trust for the Study of Adolescence, March 2000 and Report of the ATSA Task Force on Children with Sexual Behavior Problems)

  • Should include a parental assessment- one such tool is the Parenting Assessment: A Tool For Youth Offending Teams, developed by Clem Henricson, Dr. John Coleman, Dr. Debi Roker for the Trust for the Study of Adolescence, March 2000.
  • Addresses such areas as: supervision/monitoring, discipline, communication and support, living arrangements, substance use, health, mental health, victimization, parenting style, marital/couple issues, child rearing practices, sibling issues/safety, parents own struggles, needs of family and child in regard to income, education and employment. Protective factors such as positive aspects of relationship, other supports to child and family. Parents should be included in treatment, if appropriate.
slide36

Assessment of Youth with Sexual Behavior Problems(Parenting Assessment: A Tool For Youth Offending Teams, developed by Clem Henricson, Dr. John Coleman, Dr. Debi Roker for the Trust for the Study of Adolescence, March 2000 and Report of the ATSA Task Force on Children with Sexual Behavior Problems

  • Additionally important to look at other aspects of the child’s life such as extended family, community, school and peer influences. Can also involve these parties in treatment.
  • Focus should be on what factors are involved in maintaining the inappropriate behavior, what factors serve to help the client to refrain from behavior and future concerns in these regards.
  • Failing to admit is not necessarily an indication of poor prognosis or being in a pathological state of denial. May bring up own trauma or may have forgotten about it or fear getting into trouble.
slide37
Assessment of Youth with Sexual Behavior Problems( Report of the ATSA Task Force on Children with Sexual Behavior Problems)
  • The Child Sexual Behavior Inventory - III (CSBI-III; Friedrich,1997) is designed for children ages 2 – 12 and measures the frequency of both common and atypical behaviors, self-focused and other-focused behaviors, sexual knowledge and level of sexual interest. Since the development of the third edition of the CSBI, Friedrich has added four items that assess planned and aggressive sexual behaviors (Friedrich, 2002). Age and gender norms are available for the CSBI, and can help discriminate between developmentally normal and atypical sexual behavior. None of the four added planned/aggressive items were endorsed by current normative samples.
slide38

Another measure is the Child Sexual Behavior Checklist (CSBCL – 2nd Revision), which lists 150 behaviors related to sex and sexuality in children, asks about environmental issues that can increase problematic sexual behaviors in children, gathers details of children’s sexual behaviors with other children, and lists 26 problematic characteristics of children’s sexual behaviors (Johnson & Friend, 1995). The CSBCL-2nd Revision also gathers a broad range of information that is useful for assessment and treatment planning. The CSBCL-2nd Revision for children 12 and under can be completed by anyone who knows the child well (Johnson & Friend, 1995).

slide39
Assessment of Youth with Sexual Behavior Problems(Report of the ATSA Task Force on Children with Sexual Behavior Problems)
  • Should be considered time limited due to developmental changes.
  • Time not engaging in behaviors in more recent past, must be considered.
  • When out of home placement is being considered, carefully consider the negatives of this arrangement, along with benefits to the child and protection of others. The younger the child, the more consideration is needed.
slide41

Risk Assessment and the Risk Principle

Research indicates that providing high intensity treatment to low risk offenders may increase their risk level by extensively exposing them to higher risk offenders who may “contaminate” them with anti-social attitudes, thinking and behavior.

caveats to risk assessments with juveniles
Caveats to Risk Assessments with Juveniles
  • These are empirically-informed guides for the systematic review and assessment of a uniform set of items that may reflect increased risk to reoffend. These are NOT actuarial scales (yet).
  • A tool that should be used as part of a comprehensive risk assessment and never be used exclusively to make decisions about reoffense. Must be skilled and use a variety of tools and resources, as well as assess multiple aspects of functioning.
  • Used for adolescents 12-18, J-SOAP-II is only for Boys; ERASOR can be used on both boys and girls.
caveats to risk assessments with juveniles43
Caveats to Risk Assessments with Juveniles
  • Remember that adolescents are in a developmental and situational flux.
  • They are still developing social and emotional skills, attitudes and beliefs, abstract thinking and reasoning skills.
  • They have shorter attention spans and greater impulsivity.
  • Self-focus and narcissism are developmentally normal.
  • More dependent on social environment.
  • Traumatic effects may be immediate and ongoing.
slide44
Professionals May Be Able to Identify High-Risk Adolescents NEARI Newsletter, April 2009by David S. Prescott, LICSW

In 2008, Michael Hagan and his colleagues completed a five year study that examined the accuracy of risk assessment applied to adolescents who had sexually abused. The study followed a group of 12 adolescents recommended by experts for civil commitment in Wisconsin, but who were not committed. They found that 42% of these 12 adolescents had sexually offended again after five years. The results are similar to a Washington State study (Milloy, 2006) in which 33% of a small group adolescents assessed as high-risk sexually re-offended within two years. The number of young adults in this study (as well as the study by Milloy) is too small to allow any firm conclusions. However, the results suggest that the ability of evaluators to assess high risk in adolescent males may be better than many believe. Of note, the youth who re-offended very often had previous histories of known sexual abuse. They also had been unable to complete treatment. Often, their continued general behavioral problems interfered with their ability to participate in treatment.

  • Hagan, M.P., Anderson, D.L., Caldwell, M.S., & Kemper, T.S. (in press). Five-year accuracy of assessments of high risk for sexual recidivism of adolescents. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, Online First, October 28, 2008).
j soap ii static dynamic risk factors for adolescents
J-SOAP-II: Static & Dynamic Risk Factors for Adolescents

Static Factors from J-SOAP-II

  • Prior sex offense charges
  • Number of sexual abuse victims
  • Male child victims
  • Duration of sexual offense history
  • Planning in sexual offenses
  • Sexualized Aggression
  • Evidence of sexual preoccupation
  • Sexual victimization history, physical abuse history and/or exposure to family violence.
  • Caregiver consistency/stability
  • History of expressed anger
  • School behavior problems
  • History of conduct disorder before age 10
  • Juvenile antisocial behavior (10-17)
  • Ever charged/arrested before age 16
  • Multiple types offenses

Dynamic Factors from J-SOAP-II

  • Accepting responsibility for sex offenses
  • Internal motivation for change
  • Understanding risk factors and management
  • Evidence of empathy
  • Evidence of remorse and guilt
  • Presence of cognitive distortions
  • Quality of peer relationships.
  • Management of sexual urges and desire
  • Evidence of poorly managed anger in community
  • Stability of current living situation
  • Stability in school
  • Evidence of support system in community
erasor static dynamic risk factors for adolescents
ERASOR: Static & Dynamic Risk Factors for Adolescents

Static Factors from ERASOR

  • Prior adult sanctions for sexual assault(s)
  • Ever assaulted 2 or more victims
  • Male victim
  • Ever assaulted same victim 2 or more times
  • Threats of, or use of excessive violence/weapons
  • Child victims
  • Stranger victims
  • Indiscriminate choice of victims
  • Diverse sexual assault behaviors

DynamicFactors from ERASOR

  • Deviant sexual interest
  • Obsessive sexual interests
  • Attitudes supportive of offending
  • Unwillingness to alter deviant sexual interest/attitudes
  • Antisocial peer orientation
  • Lack of intimate peer relationships/social isolation
  • Negative peer associations and influences
  • Interpersonal aggression
  • Recent escalation in anger or negative affect
  • Poor self-regulation of affect and behavior (Impulsivity)
  • High-stress family environment
  • Problematic parent-offender relationships/parental rejection
  • Parent(s) not supporting of sexual offense specific assessment/treatment
  • Environment supporting opportunities to reoffend sexually
  • No development or practice of realistic prevention plans/strategies
  • Incomplete sexual offense specific treatment
slide47

J-SOAP-II

  • There are many items in the J-SOAP-II related to the risk of general juvenile delinquency.
  • The J-SOAP-II provides ratings of sexual re-offence risk using 28 items across four scales:
      • two static scales: Sexual Drive/Preoccupation and Impulsive, Antisocial Behavior.
      • two dynamic scales: Clinical/Treatment and Community Stability/Adjustment.
jsoap ii scoring form
JSOAP-II Scoring Form

I. Sexual Drive / Preoccupation Scale

1. Prior Legally Charged Sex Offense

2. Number of Sexual Abuse Victims

3. Male Child Victim

4. Duration of Sex Offense History

5. Degree of Planning in Sexual Offense(s)

6. Sexualized Aggression

7. Sexual Drive and Preoccupation

8. Sexual Victimization History

Sexual Drive Preoccupation Scale Total

II. Impulsive, Antisocial Behavior Scale

9. Caregiver Consistency

10. Pervasive Anger

11. School Behavior Problems

12. History of Conduct Disorder

13. Juvenile Antisocial Behavior

14. Ever Charged/Arrested Before Age 16

15. Multiple Types of Offenses

16. Physical Assault / Exposure to Family Violence

Antisocial Behavior Scale Total

III. Intervention Scale

17. Accepting Responsibility for Offense(s)

18. Internal Motivation for Change

19. Understands Risk Factors

20. Empathy

21. Remorse and Guilt

22. Cognitive Distortions

23. Quality of Peer Relationships

Intervention Scale Total

IV. Community Stability/ Adjustment Scale

24. Management of Sexual Urges and Desire

25. Management of Anger

26. Stability of Current Living Situation

27. Stability in School

28. Evidence of Support Systems

Community Stability Scale Total

slide49

ERASOR, Version 2 – The Estimate of Risk of Adolescent Sexual Offense Recidivism

  • Assesses sexual re-offense risk among juvenile sex offenders.
  • 23 items scored by clinical staff or case manager using a weighted key.
  • The ERASOR 2.0 has 9 identified static items (5 - 13), with the majority (64%) of its questions tapping dynamic risk factors (i.e.,16 of 25 questions). Scales should be re-assessed at 6 month intervals and sooner if risk-relevant changes have occurred.
slide50

ERASOR 2.0 vs. J-SOAP-II

  • ERASOR 2.0: The ERASOR 2.0 has 21% more dynamic risk items than the J-SOAP-II that could give this instrument a slight edge as the protocol of choice for treatment providers conducting repeated evaluations across time to determine treatment progress.
slide51

J-SOAP-II vs. ERASOR 2.0

  • J-SOAP-II: The J-SOAP-II has 21% more static risk items than the ERASOR 2.0 that could give this instrument a slight edge as the protocol of choice for forensic examiners conducting a one time evaluation to determine an initial risk level for the purpose of recommending an initial level of treatment care (i.e., outpatient services, Foster Care, or residential placement).
slide52

JSORRAT-II- Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool-II

  • The JSORRAT-II was developed using an actuarial approach. It is for male juveniles who have offended sexually, recognizing the potential for accurate risk assessment to inform a range of decisions, including placement, programming, and supervision.
  • The JSORRAT-II is a 12-item (static) actuarial risk assessment tool initially developed for Utah Juvenile Justice Services to provide empirically-based estimates of risk for future juvenile sexual offending by male juveniles.
slide53

SAVRY – Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth

  • The SAVRY is useful in the assessment of either male or female adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years. It may be used by professionals in a variety of disciplines who conduct assessments and/or make intervention/ supervision plans concerning violence risk in youth.
slide54

MEGA♪ - Multiplex Empirically Guided Inventory of Ecological Aggregates for Assessing Sexually Abusive Children and Adolescents

  • Risk Scale
  • Static Scale
  • Dynamical Scale
  • Principles Scale
  • Protective Risk Scale
  • Female Scale
  • (Miccio-Fonseca)
slide55

MEGA♪ - Sexual Incident Aggregate

Assesses:

  • History of sexually abusive behaviors
  • Legal involvement due to sexual behaviors
  • Deviant sexual proclivities
  • Youth’s sexual behaviors that show progression across time and situations
slide56

MIDSA - The Multidimensional Inventory of Development, Sex, and Aggression

  • Developmental history (birth to 18 years)
  • Social history
  • Antisocial history
  • Sexual practices
  • Attitudes

(R. Knight; J. Sims)

slide59

Is Denial a Risk Factor?NEARI Newsletter May 2009by David S. Prescott, LICSWNunes, K.L., Hanson, R.K., Firestone, P., Moulden, H.M., Greenberg, D.M., & Bradford, J.M. (2007). Denial predicts recidivism for some sexual offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 19, 91-105.

  • From the victim's point of view, it is critical that society does not deny the victim's experience. But does denial affect treatment and is it a risk factor for re-offense?
  • To date, there are only limited studies directly examining denial and re-offense among adolescents. These focus on the important role that families can play in denial.
  • Be extremely careful in considering denial as a risk factor. Easy to conclude that those who deny abusive behavior are more likely to continue it. However, the roots of denial are multi-faceted- some denials may be manipulative, while others reflect a psychological defense against the anguish of admission, while for some it may be an initial coping mechanism.
slide60
Tracking Change in Youth with Sexual Behavior Problems ( Report of the ATSA Task Force on Children with Sexual Behavior Problems)
  • A shorter instrument appropriate for tracking week-to-week changes in general and sexual behavior among young children is the Weekly Behavior Report (WBR; Cohen & Mannarino, 1996).

(This is a free tool in appendix A of Child Maltreatment).

adolescents who sexually act out

Adolescents Who Sexually Act Out

Ages 13 to 17 years old

slide62
Challenging Long-Held Notions about Sexual Abuse by Adolescents NEARI Newsletter, November 2008by David S. Prescott, LICSW
  • 2005, Elizabeth Letourneau and Michael Miner published an influential article in Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment.   In it, they describe and dispute three myths that strongly influence legal and clinical interventions: 1.) There is an epidemic of juvenile offending, including sexual offending, 2.) Juvenile sex offenders have more in common with adult sex offenders than with other juvenile delinquents. 3.) In the absence of sex offender-specific treatment, juvenile sex offenders are at exceptionally high risk of re-offending.
  • In fact: Juvenile offenses have decreased over the last 10 years.  (see Dodge, 2008 for a review).  Second, Letourneau and Miner note that the rate of known sexual re-offense is much lower than many believe.
  • Adolescents who have sexually abused have more in common with other juveniles than adult sexual offenders.
what are the factors that drive sexually inappropriate behavior
What are the factors that drive sexually inappropriate behavior?
  • Curiosity & Experimentation- may have seen things and want to try them too.
  • Impulsivity
  • Mental health issues
  • Developmental delays
  • Poor boundaries
  • Not reading social cues appropriately, responds inappropriately to flirtation and sex talk.
what are the factors that drive sexually inappropriate behavior64
What are the factors that drive sexually inappropriate behavior?
  • Reacting to own abuse history.
  • As part of poor peer group behaviors.
  • As part of a conduct disorder profile-poor sense of self, disregard for social rules, poor moral development.
  • Few, but some older juveniles may have a true offense pattern and victim profile, deviant arousal and paraphilic sexual arousal.
how abuse and trauma effect sexual acting out behavior
How Abuse and Trauma Effect Sexual Acting Out Behavior
  • The severity and number of trauma exposures (physical/sexual abuse, life threats, death of another, and gang violence) combined with their vulnerabilities and lack of protective factors will increase the chances of developing PTSD and trauma re-enactment.
  • Over the past 10 years numerous studies have shown a clear relationship between youth victimization and a variety of problems in later life, including:
    • Mental health problems
    • Substance abuse
    • Impaired social relationships
    • Suicide
    • Delinquency
victims of sexual abuse who later act out sexually
Victims of Sexual Abuse who Later Act Out Sexually

Risk factors compared to those who have been sexually abused and DON’T become perpetrators:

  • Victims who were in close relationships to the abuser, often intrafamilial.
  • Victims who were frequently abused with intrusive acts over a long period of time.
  • The use of force or threats.
additional co morbid diagnoses to consider and address in assessment and treatment
Additional Co-Morbid Diagnoses to Consider and Address in Assessment and Treatment
  • Asperger’s Disorder & Pervasive Developmental Disorder NOS
  • Impairment in social interaction & social/emotional reciprocity.
  • Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Difficulty with inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity.
  • Conduct Disorder
  • Repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of
  • others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated.
  • Oppositional Defiant Disorder
  • Pattern of negative, hostile and defiant behavior.
  • Reactive Attachment Disorder
  • Markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social
  • relatedness in most contexts beginning before age5, as a result of
  • pathogenic care. Two types: inhibited and disinhibited.
additional co morbid diagnoses to consider and address in assessment and treatment68
Additional Co-Morbid Diagnoses to Consider and Address in Assessment and Treatment
  • Bipolar Disorder
  • Substance Related Disorders
  • Depressive Disorders
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Adjustment Disorder
additional co morbid diagnoses to consider and address in assessment and treatment69
Additional Co-Morbid Diagnoses to Consider and Address in Assessment and Treatment
  • V Codes that may be the focus:

-Parent-Child Relational Problem

-Sibling Relational Problem

-Physical Abuse of Child (focus on victim)

-Sexual Abuse of Child

-Neglect of Child (focus on victim)

-Bereavement

slide70
Is Specialized Assessment and Treatment for Adolescents Really Needed? NEARI Newsletter, October 2008by David S. Prescott, LICSW
  • This study, by Michael Caldwell, compares the recidivism patterns of a cohort of 249 juvenile sexual offenders and 1,780 non-sexual offending delinquents who were released from secured custody over a 2-1/2 year period. The prevalence of sex offenders with new sexual offense charges during the 5-year follow-up period was 6.8%, compared to 5.7% for the non-sexual offenders, a non-significant difference.
  • Juvenile sex offenders were nearly 10 times more likely to have been charged with a nonsexual offense than a sexual offense.
  • Eighty-five percent of the new sexual offenses in the follow-up period were accounted for by the non-sex offending delinquents. None of the 54 homicides (including 3 sexual homicides) was committed by a juvenile sex offender.
slide71

If the data shows that so few adolescents persist in sexual abuse, why have we developed such a specialized field?

  • R-N-R: Even small risks for significant harmful events make comprehensive assessment necessary. Not only can it identify treatment needs, it can rule out areas that don't apply to a particular adolescent. High-quality assessments have the potential to identify those who are less likely to abuse again, thus protecting them from unnecessary long-term consequences. It is essential that all treatment of adolescents take into account their entire life and future. Although abuse-specific treatment is important for those who have abused, it must also take place within a whole-person framework (responsivity).
  • Caldwell, M.F. (2007). Sexual offense adjudication and sexual recidivism among juvenile offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 19, 107-113.
slide72

Denial may simply mean that professionals have not yet provided a context where the adolescent can tell the truth. Rather than think of denial as a risk factor, it may be more helpful to consider the adolescent's motivations for denying or admitting. An adolescent's denial may mean that they do not yet trust the professional who is working with them.The role of denial is still far from clear. It may be that an adolescent's unwillingness to acknowledge his or her behavior reflects an underlying risk. On the other hand, we should not expect that someone would decide to re-offend in the future just because they said, "I didn't do it" today. What is clear from the research is that the practitioner must look at the context in which the adolescent lives (e.g., their family, school, etc.) and address the adolescent and this larger system when looking for a road to a healthy situation. 

a responsivity approach
A Responsivity Approach
  • Individualized treatment plan.
  • Address those issues identified as risk and needs through a comprehensive assessment. Treatment level is guided by risk level.
  • Supports and fosters the protective factors throughout treatment.
primary treatment issues
Primary Treatment Issues
  • Stop abusive touch
  • Increase impulse control
  • Improve coping skills
  • Help child to experience safe, nurturing, non-abusive relationships
  • Develop non-abusive ways to meet needs
  • Increase responsibility taking for behaviors
  • Understand and regulate thoughts and feelings
  • Sexual education
  • Perspective taking and empathy
primary treatment issues76
Primary Treatment Issues
  • Child’s own victimization history (physical, sexual and/or emotional)
  • Drug/alcohol use/abuse (if relevant)
  • Gang/street affiliation or other negative peer influences
  • Self-esteem development
  • Communication/assertiveness skills
  • Development of appropriate activities/structure of time.
  • Referral for medication and medication monitoring, if appropriate
  • Family issues
slide77

What treatment for kids who display sexually problematic behaviors?(Report of the ATSA Task Force on Children with Sexual Behavior Problems)

  • It appears that improvement in SBP is the rule over time, at least when some sort of detection and adult intervention is provided.
  • Second, it appears that focused treatment helps, and structured, SBP-focused CBT approaches that include parent/caregiver involvement have been found to work better than unstructured supportive therapy or unstructured play therapy approaches.
  • Third, it appears that blended CB Treatments targeting both traumatic stress symptoms and SBP can be successful in helping both problems in cases where both are present.
  • Group and/or individual and family work.
  • Needs to be concrete, demonstration, practice and reinforcement driven. Abstract principles such as emotional regulation might be best suited for 10-12 range.
  • Address most pressing treatment issues first and intersperse SBP treatment or add in later.
slide78

What treatment for kids who display sexually problematic behaviors?(Report of the ATSA Task Force on Children with Sexual Behavior Problems)

  • Treatment Components- Identify, recognize inappropriateness of behavior and apologize for violating rules (not usually for kids under 7), learning and practicing basic, simple rules about sexual behavior and physical boundaries, age-appropriate sex education, coping and self-control strategies, basic sexual abuse prevention/safety skills & social skills.
  • Parent/Caregivers focus on developing and implementing a safety plan & modification of safety plan, address supervision and monitoring, communication with other adults about issues, education about appropriate sexual development, how to implement rules related to privacy and boundaries, how to maintain environment that is not overly sexual, sex education strategies, relationship strategies, parenting strategies, supporting child’s self-control strategies, helping child develop appropriate peer relationship, addressing parental stress and increasing supports for all family members.
slide79

The Value of Asking Adolescents to Self-Report Sexual Arousal and Sexual InterestNEARI Newsletter , February 2009by David S. Prescott, LICSW

  • What did we learn? Adolescents can be truthful, using the least intrusive method would be the better practice (most cases, need to ensure a person-centered practice- focus on the person, not just the behavior).
  • Worling cautions that the adolescent's choice of victim does not necessarily indicate a fixed pattern of sexual interest. In fact, sexual arousal can change significantly across adolescence. Although some sexually abusive adolescents exhibit patterns of offense-related sexual interest and arousal, the majority do not. For this reason, clinicians should use a careful assessment to take a more comprehensive look at all of the issues the adolescent is facing.
  • There is much we don't know about adolescent sexual interest and arousal. They are related but different, (e.g., many adult men experience sexual arousal to adolescent female stimuli in assessment conditions but are not interested in having sex with them). Sexual abuse against children does not mean that the person is a pedophile. Likewise, sexual assault of a same-age peer does not necessarily indicate a preference for sexual violence. To date, there is little research into adolescent sexuality generally and limited comparisons of the sexual interests and arousal of those who have and haven't abused.
slide80

The Value of Asking Adolescents to Self-Report Sexual Arousal and Sexual InterestNEARI Newsletter , February 2009by David S. Prescott, LICSW

  • James Worling (Worling, J.R. (2006). Assessing sexual arousal with adolescent males who have offended sexually: Self-report and unobtrusively measured viewing time. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 18, 383-400.) studied three ways to measure sexual arousal and interest among adolescent males who acknowledged having sexually abused:1.) a computerized analysis of how long the adolescent looks at each of a series of pictures of clothed people of both genders and varying ages, 2.) a self-report rating form for each of the same photographs , 3.) a simple graph in which the adolescents rated their sexual arousal for eight age categories, with one graph for each gender
  • The study found similar patterns of responses to all three assessment techniques. The two self-report procedures distinguished those adolescents who abused children from those who abused peers or adults. The computerized assessment was able to distinguish those who had abused male children, but no technique accurately identified adolescents who had abused female children exclusively.
  • In this study, Worling found that the adolescents typically did not find any of the methods upsetting.
slide81
“Wraparound” is a structured, family centered, team based process of care planning and implementation that results in a unique set of community services and natural supports that are individualized for a child and family to achieve a positive set of outcomes.

Burchard et al., 2002

Wraparound

team members
Team Members

Community Activities

Other

Employment

Client

Case Manager

Education

JuvenileCorrections

Services

Family/Caretakers

Peers

Therapist

working collaboratively
Working Collaboratively
  • First and foremost make sure all necessary releases are signed by guardians.
  • Protect the child’s confidentiality as much as possible, need to ensure safety of others as well. Use releases to disclose, but don’t over disclose.
  • Try to learn what underlying issues exist and help to monitor them.
  • Be willing to name and address any inappropriate behaviors.
  • Report to therapist and family any and all concerns.
  • Encourage regular meetings with providers and family to discuss progress in all areas.
  • Offer opportunities for the child to improve his/her self-esteem, develop healthy attachments and pro-social skills in home, school and community.
a new tool helps assess treatment progress neari newsletter october 2008 by david s prescott licsw
A New Tool Helps Assess Treatment ProgressNEARI Newsletter, October 2008by David S. Prescott, LICSW
  • Oneal, B.J. Burns, G.L. Kahn, T.J., Rich, P., & Worling, J.R. (2008). Initial Psychometric Properties of a Treatment Planning and Progress Inventory for Adolescents Who Sexually Abuse. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 20, 161-
  • The Treatment Progress Inventory for Adolescents Who Sexually Abuse (TPI-ASA) was designed to monitor common elements of specialized treatment for youth with sexual behavior problems.
  • The TPI-ASA measures nine dimensions relevant to the evaluation and treatment of adolescents with sexual behavior problems (inappropriate sexual behavior, healthy sexuality, social competency, cognitions supportive of sexual abuse, attitudes supportive of sexual abuse, victim awareness, affective/behavioral regulation, risk prevention awareness, and positive family caregiver dynamics).
  • Helpful in planning and assessing treatment. Rather than focus only on stopping the abusive behaviors, the tool expands the focus to include helpful assets, such as healthy sexuality and social competency.  The authors have taken care that the wording for each item in the inventory is positive and strengths-based.
  • Members of the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers completed the TPI-ASA with 90 male adolescents with sexual behavior problems as part of a psychosexual evaluation. The preliminary findings provided support for the internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity of the dimensions.
slide87
The JOSAP-II, ERASOR, MEGA, and MIDSA can also be used to assess change in the adolescents risk and protective factors.
slide89

7. The chaperone agrees to keep the offender within eye and ear sight at all times while in risky situation. 8. The chaperone will not allow the offender any unsupervised contact with or supervision over a minor.9. The chaperone agrees to not allow physical contact of any kind with at risk population, such as back rubbing, hand holding or wrestling/tickling.10.The chaperone and offender understand that PUBLIC SAFETY is the first priority. All parties understand that probation/parole and/or case worker conditions must be followed in the process, no exceptions are made.11.Each chaperone agrees to report all concerns to the RULE CPC Therapist and/or Area Coordinator immediately and to call the authorities if the client has reportedly re-offended. The offender understands this and agrees to allow this to occur. THERE ARE NO SECRETS! 12.Each chaperone understands that a form will be completed after each and every time chaperoning occurs, which will be processed in treatment with the offender.

the chaperone program
The Chaperone Program

The Chaperone Program for juveniles and young adults is designed to provide support to the juvenile or young adult who sexually acted out and to create another layer of supervision while in situations that are deemed risky to the particular juvenile or young adult. Each individual’s situation will vary as to what is determined to be “risky”.

slide91

Criteria to be a Chaperone Both the Offender and Chaperone MUST agree to the following:1. It is highly recommended that the chaperone be at least twenty-five years old; however, exceptions may be made as determined by the containment team.2. The chaperone must hold the offender accountable for their behavior as well as understand the impact of the behavior on the victim, as well as the risk for the re-offense. 3. Each chaperone agrees to undergo an interview with either the offender’s therapist(s), area coordinator, victim advocate or designated person to assess the proposed Chaperones knowledge of the client and appropriateness to be a chaperone. 4. Each chaperone must be willing and able to hold the offender accountable for their behaviors past and present. Each offender must agree to be held accountable by the chaperone as well. 5. Each chaperone agrees to follow safety plans developed and to cease any involvement in activities, if one suspects that the offender is not following the plans. 6. The chaperone agrees to not use drugs or alcohol (regardless of age) while chaperoning the offender.

slide92

7. The chaperone agrees to keep the offender within eye and ear sight at all times while in risky situation. 8. The chaperone will not allow the offender any unsupervised contact with or supervision over a minor.9. The chaperone agrees to not allow physical contact of any kind with at risk population, such as back rubbing, hand holding or wrestling/tickling.10.The chaperone and offender understand that PUBLIC SAFETY is the first priority. All parties understand that probation/parole and/or case worker conditions must be followed in the process, no exceptions are made.11.Each chaperone agrees to report all concerns to the RULE CPC Therapist and/or Area Coordinator immediately and to call the authorities if the client has reportedly re-offended. The offender understands this and agrees to allow this to occur. THERE ARE NO SECRETS! 12.Each chaperone understands that a form will be completed after each and every time chaperoning occurs, which will be processed in treatment with the offender.

slide93

CHAPERONE Training Topics:1. Rules and laws regarding appropriate and inappropriate sexual behaviors.2. Normal and inappropriate sexual behavior in children3. R.U.L.E. Juvenile or young adult Program Overview4. Sexual Abuse Information, Signs & Impact5. Overview of R.U.L.E. Juvenile and Young Adult Curriculum6. The Cycle of Dysregulation 7. "Setting Up" Behaviors8. Stinkin' Thinkin'9. Managing Inappropriate Thoughts10. The Healthy Living Plan (HeLP)11. Safety Plan 12. Secondary Trauma & Stress Management Tips13. Post Test and Evaluation14. Chaperone Event Review Form (for each outing)

slide95
What Is a Safety Plan and Why have a safety plan? Adapted from Carrie Craft at About.com guide to adoption

What is a Safety Plan?

An organized set of rules and guidelines used to supervise and structure time and space, due to behavioral issues. Designed for the safety and well-being of person acting out, as well as those around him/her, in addition to pets and property.

Why have one?

  • To address publicly sexually inappropriate behavior (i.e. masturbating, etc.)
  • To address sexually inappropriate or violent behavior with pets.
  • To address sexualized play.
  • To address acting out with siblings or other children in the family, neighborhood or school, this may include – sexualized talk or inappropriate touch.
  • To address verbally and physically abusive behavior towards others.
  • To address harm to property when angry, which may result in harming the child or others.
  • To address night time wandering.
  • To address fire safety issues.
  • Other.
how to create a safety plan adapted from carrie craft at about com guide to adoption
How to create a safety planAdapted from Carrie Craft at About.com guide to adoption
  • Define the issue or problem. Be precise and clear with the definition. (ex. J. stares at little girls when out in the community. Occurs 3/week or more)
  • Be clear about who you need to protect. (ex. This makes the girls and their families uncomfortable and fuels J’s inappropriate thoughts)
  • Pinpoint when the behavior occurs, if possible and predictable. (When in the community, during visitation, while not closely supervised)
  • Determine who is involved in the safety plan and specifically how they will help. (Parents, school staff, client, milieu staff, treatment staff, J.) (ex. Parents, school personnel and staff will be one to one with client while in the community and monitor J.’s staring. J. will report to staff any desires to stare immediately)
how to create a safety plan adapted from carrie craft at about com guide to adoption97
How to create a safety plan Adapted from Carrie Craft at About.com guide to adoption
  • What tools/plans might be utilized as part of the safety plan (I.e. door alarms, house alarm systems, baby gates, locks high on outside doors (never lock a child in a bedroom), discipline tools/techniques, no shut doors, no unsupervised time with peers, sibling or pets, no bedroom sharing, no overnights, locked matches/lighters/knives) (ex. J. will develop an urge control contract and educate his support system about it. He will carry this contract with him and utilize it. He will report and discuss effectiveness in therapy)
  • Set how achievement is being measured .(ex. J. will report using his plan 2/3 times per week, J. will decrease staring to 2/3 times, per staff and self-report)
  • Set a time limit for the safety plan to be revisited, say at least every 3-6 months. (Review what is working and what is not, what other help may be needed and implement new changes to plan)
  • What if the safety plan fails?(Report to therapist and revise, consider underlying issues or other strategies and re-work the plan. If there was harm to self or others, need to report to case workers and/or the police)
safety plan for
Safety PlanFor:_______________

1.)Issue & Frequency:

Impact:

Goal:

Players and Roles:

Timeframe:

2.) Issue & Frequency:

Impact:

Goal:

Players and Roles:

Timeframe:

slide99

The COUNSELING & PSYCHOTHERAPY CENTER, INC. Tel: (213) 725-6072 Fax: (888) 278-5972SAFETY PLANCLIENT: Ian Safer R.U.L.E. CPC CLINICIAN: Timothy Sinn TODAY’S DATE: 5/13/11 Client Location: Conference San Mateo, CA CURRENT OUTINGS:School AttendanceAttend church on SundaysGo to doctor’s appointments and dentist’s appointments Haircuts every 2-3 monthsPROPOSED OUTINGS: Go to MallPlay after school sportsNAME OF CHAPERONES: BrotherMother

slide100

PRIMARY INDIVIDUALS VISITED:Family Members:FriendsTransportation-Mary Ann Hall (wife) or other adult children will drive Ted Hall on outings.Activities- Restaurants, cookouts, family outings, fishing, doctor/dental visits, haircuts, church SAFETY PLANSFamily Visits: Would be accompanied by one of the Chaperones identified above. No children are expected at any of the homes. If a female child under the age of 18 shows up, we would cut our visit short if any children were to show up. After school sports: Mall: Restroom Usage outside of the home: He states if he did need to use the restroom, he would have his Chaperone check to make sure no child was in there and he would wait until it was unoccupied.

public policy

Public Policy

Adolescents

slide102

Public Policy regarding Children with SBP (under 12 years old)(Report of the ATSA Task Force on Children With Sexual Behavior Problems- 2005)

  • Although some adult offenders report a childhood onset to their sexual aggression, we should avoid the logical fallacy of reasoning backwards and assuming that all or most children with SBP are therefore on a path toward serious sexual aggression.
  • Given appropriate treatment, children with SBP were no more likely to have future arrests for sexual or nonsexual offenses than children with other behavioral problems. (A ten-year risk of 2-3% for both groups)
  • Children lack the experience, education and wisdom to make decisions in the ways that adults do. Also their behaviors are highly susceptible to environmental influences- behaviors can be related to own trauma or witnessing sexual materials.
  • Unfortunately some jurisdictions adjudicate and register children as young as 8-9 years old. This label can create stigmatization and impede appropriate development. It doesn’t appear to make sense from a public safety point of view either, given their low risk to harm others, especially with treatment.
slide103

Public Policy regarding Children with SBP (under 12 years old)(Report of the ATSA Task Force on Children With Sexual Behavior Problems- 2005)

  • Mandated reporting issues- check your states rules and professional guidelines and follow them. May need to do so to protect child from abuse in the home or to prevent the client from seriously harming others.
  • Placement decisions should be carefully considered and avoided if possible. If not possible then aim for the least restrictive, closest to home where parents can continue involvement in child’s life and treatment. A relative might be a good choice with precautions taken such as own bedroom, dressing and bathing alone, appropriate media/internet use, discouragement of hands on behaviors.
  • May need to inform others of behavior, do so in a way to support child, and only if necessary.
  • Collaboration is key- work together for the benefit of the child!
slide104

Does Registration for Juvenile Offenders Work and Is It A Good Idea?Information from Recidivism Rates for Registered and Nonregistered Juvenile Sexual Offenders by Elizabeth J. Letourneau & Kevin Armstrong. Printed in Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment. Volume 20, Number 4. December 2008 393-408

  • During the past decade, many state and federal policies (SORNA- Title 1 of the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006) originally developed for repeat adult offenders were applied to adolescents to reduce recidivism in this group, resulting in long-term public registration for some of these individuals.
  • “Although widespread (Levenson, Brannon, Fortney & Baker, 2007) this belief of high recidivism risk is not supported by available evidence, especially with respect to juveniles who offend.“
  • “Fortune and Lambie (2006) reported that sexual recidivism rates for treated youth ranged between 0% and 40%, but tended to fall below 10%. Previous reviews have reached similar conclusions (e.g. Caldwell, 2002), and even youth subjected to registration have low sexual recidivism rates”.
slide105

Does Registration for Juvenile Offenders Work and Is It A Good Idea? (Continued)Information from Recidivism Rates for Registered and Nonregistered Juvenile Sexual Offenders by Elizabeth J. Letourneau & Kevin Armstrong. Printed in Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment. Volume 20, Number 4. December 2008 393-408

  • Alternatively, some have argued that public registration might increase recidivism rates (although not necessarily sexual recidivism; see Letourneau & Miner, 2005) by creating barriers to the successful societal reintegration of offenders (Jones, 2007; Michels, 2007; Oliver, 2007).
  • Study designed to look at effects of public registration to juveniles. Used South Carolina due to it being the first state to respond to the federal registration requirements which provided a longer follow-up of youth than states with recent enactment of policies. Also policy is similar to SORNA policy in that both require long-term public registration of some minors. Might provide insight regarding effects of SORNA based policies being enacted in other states.
slide106

Does Registration for Juvenile Offenders Work and Is It A Good Idea? (Continued)Information from Recidivism Rates for Registered and Nonregistered Juvenile Sexual Offenders by Elizabeth J. Letourneau & Kevin Armstrong. Printed in Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment. Volume 20, Number 4. December 2008 393-408

  • Sample of 222 minor boys (17 or younger) found guilty of a registry (index) offense between 1/1/95 and 12/31/05. 111 of these were required to register, the remaining 111 were matched with this group bases on date of offense (within one year), age of arrest (within one year), race (white or minority), a dichotomized indicator of prior convictions (0=none, 1=any), a dichotomized indicator of prior convictions for nonperson offense (0=none, 1=any) and type of index offense. Prior convictions for sexual offenses were rare and matches could only be found for registered youth with no such priors. Data came from sex offender registry records, juvenile justice records and adult criminal history records. Even though S.C. has registration triggered solely by conviction offense, a judge will occasionally instruct a juvenile to NOT register, even though the law does not permit this discretion. Recidivism was defined as new guilty dispositions (whether in juvenile or adult court) for sexual, nonsexual person or nonperson offenses that occurred during follow up. Any type of sexual offense conviction (whether or not the offense was a “registry” offense) was counted as sexual recidivism. The majority of nonsexual person offenses were assault (I.e. A&B, simple assault, domestic violence), robbery and lynching. Nonperson offenses were categorized as property offenses and public order violations. Status violations were not included here (such as curfew violations).
slide107

Does Registration for Juvenile Offenders Work and Is It A Good Idea? (Continued)Information from Recidivism Rates for Registered and Nonregistered Juvenile Sexual Offenders by Elizabeth J. Letourneau & Kevin Armstrong. Printed in Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment. Volume 20, Number 4. December 2008 393-408

  • Results: Sexual Offense Recidivism Rates of 2 of 222 or 0.9%. Too low to compare between groups. The 2 events occurred to registered youth.
  • Fails to support the effectiveness of this policy- that is to reduce recidivism.
punishment does not prevent abuse neari newsletter july 2008 by david s prescott licsw
Punishment Does Not Prevent AbuseNEARI Newsletter, July 2008by David S. Prescott, LICSW
  • Paula Smith, Claire Goggin, and Paul Gendreau (2002) examined 117 studies from 1958 to 2002 involving 442,471 criminal offenders. This study expanded previous analyses by examining the effects of sanctions on over 50,000 juveniles as well as with females and minorities. They studied the impact of various punitive approaches on recidivism.  The punitive approaches included: length of incarceration, institutional placement and receiving an intermediate sanction (such as “scared straight”)
  • The study found that the use of punitive sanctions did not decrease recidivism under any of these conditions.  If anything, some initial findings showed a slight increase in recidivism with an increase in length of incarceration.
  • Consider this research when making recommendations that could affect sentencing or interventions.  Ensure that you use these findings to differentiate between measures that are punitive-only and interventions that enable a youth to develop their own reasons to live a life free of abuse. Given the reality that many young people who sexually abuse come from backgrounds in which abuse is commonplace (Schwartz, Cavanaugh, Prentky, & Pimental, 2006), interventions must involve adults who will teach and model accountability and offer a positive alternative for living a healthy life.  Professionals should advocate for treatment as a means of preventing further abuse. The stakes are too high to ignore these findings.
punishment does not prevent abuse neari newsletter july 2008 by david s prescott licsw109
Punishment Does Not Prevent AbuseNEARI Newsletter, July 2008by David S. Prescott, LICSW
  • A summary of this study appears at: www.publicsafety.gc.ca
  • The complete study is available: publications/corrections/200201_Gendreau_e.pdfReferences:
  • Juszkiewicz, J. (2000, December). Youth Crime/Adult Time: Is Justice Served? Document in electronic library of the National Institute of Corrections. Retrieved June 29, 2008 from http://nicic.org/Library/016611. Also available at www.buildingblocksforyouth.org.
    • Letourneau, E.J., & Miner, M.H. (2005). Juvenile sex offenders: A case against the legal and clinical status quo. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 17, 293-312.
    • Ryan, G. & Lane, S. (1997). Juvenile sex offending. Sand Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    • Schwartz, B. Cavanaugh, D., Prentky, R., & Pimental, A.(2006). Family violence and severe maltreatment in sexually reactive children and adolescents. In R.E. Longo & D.S. Prescott (Eds.), Current perspectives: Working with sexually aggressive youth and youth with sexual behavior problems, pp. 443-472. Holyoke, MA: NEARI Press.
    • Smith, P., Goggin, C., & Gendreau, P. (2002). The effects of prison sentences and intermediate sanctions on recidivism: General effects and individual differences. (User Report 2002-01). Ottawa: Solicitor General Canada.
slide110

END OF PRESENTATION

THANK YOU

The Counseling and Psychotherapy Centers

For slides and handoutsplease visit our website

www.cpcamerica.com