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Babylon, Assyria and Persia. Learning Objectives. Learning Objectives. Identify the following: theocracy, polytheism, empire, The Code of Hammurabi, and the Babylonian Captivity.

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Learning Objectives

Learning Objectives

Identify the following: theocracy, polytheism, empire, The Code of Hammurabi, and the Babylonian Captivity.

Explore and identify the chief contributions and characteristics of the Babylonians, Phoenicians, Assyrians, and Persians.

Identify the following people: Sargon, Hammurabi, Nebuchadnezzar II, Ahura Mazda, Cyrus the Great, and Darius.

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Timeline - Mesopotamia

Timeline - Mesopotamia

Sumer

Akkad

Babylon

Assyria

Chaldean Babylon

Persia

3000 BC

2340 – 2100 BC

1792-1750 BC

900 BC – 600 BC

600 – 539 BC

559 – 330 BC

How many civilizations controlled the Mesopotamian region?

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Mesopotamian Cultures

Mesopotamian Cultures

  • All speak a Semiticlanguage.
  • Arable land near the Tigris/Euphratesrivers was managed with irrigation systems.
  • Nonaturalbarriers – prone to invaders.
  • Theocratic – kings rule as divine leaders.

Map of the Region

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The Akkadians and Sargon

The Akkadians and Sargon

  • Sargon – Powerful monarch (king) who led the Akkadians.
  • 1st to establish an empire. That lasted 240 years.
  • Empire – a largeterritory or group of cities under a singleleader or government.

Copper Statue mask of Sargon.

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The Babylonians

The Babylonians

  • Babylon was the center of culture and trade. People relied on a bartereconomy in order to exchange goods.
  • The civilizations in this region were polytheistic.
  • Cultural Diffusion - when a cultural trait, material object, idea, or behavior pattern is spread from one society to another.
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Check for Understanding

Check for Understanding

  • What type of language was spoken in Babylon?
  • What impact did the lack of natural barriers have on this region?
  • Who was the 1st leader to establish an empire?
  • Which city was the most cosmopolitan?
  • Were the people in this region monotheistic, or polytheistic?
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King Hammurabi

King Hammurabi

  • Ruled a strong Babylonian Empire.
  • He established the 1stcode of laws called the “Code of Hammurabi.”
  • He built temples, encouraged trade, and revived Babylon’s economy.
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Hammurabi defeated many armies, and was known as the “Sun of Babylon.”

  • He led the “Man of War” army. These soldiers carried axes, spears, and daggers made of copper or bronze.
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The Code of Hammurabi

The Code of Hammurabi

  • His most important contribution – the 1stcode of laws.
  • Hammurabi’s laws were carved on stones, and placed in the center of allBabyloniancities.
  • The laws were the same for all cities he ruled.

King Hammurabi receiving the code.

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The Code of Hammurabi

The Code of Hammurabi

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The Code of Hammurabi

The Code of Hammurabi

  • Strictjustice system and consumerprotection laws.
  • Severepenalties for breaking the law.

Hammurabis’ Court

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The Code of Hammurabi

The Code of Hammurabi

  • Retaliation was key.
  • An “Eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.”
  • If a Judge ruled poorly, he paid a fine and lost his position.

This woman was one of the Chief judges under Nebuchadnezzar II.

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The Lion Kings of Assyria

The Lion Kings of Assyria

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The Lion Kings of Assyria

The Lion Kings of Assyria

  • The Assyrian “kings” took the title of “Stewards of the Gods.”
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The Lion Kings of Assyria

The Lion Kings of Assyria

King Ashurbanipal left, and the Lion hunting relief to the right. Wikipedia Commons

  • War-like kings of Assyria took over the region around 700 BC.
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The Lion Kings of Assyria

The Lion Kings of Assyria

  • By 650 BC, the Assyrians had defeated Syria, Palestine, Babylon, Egypt and Anatolia.
  • They established an empire that lasted about 300 years.

Map showing the extent of the Assyrian Empire. Courtesy of Wikipedia Commons.

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The Lion Kings of Assyria

The Lion Kings of Assyria

  • The army and its kings were infamous.
  • King Sennacherib was recorded to have sacked 89 cities, and 820 villages.
  • He burned Babylon and killed most of the city’s people.

King Sennacherib laying siege to the city of Lacdhish in Palestine.

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The Lion Kings of Assyria

The Lion Kings of Assyria

  • “3,000 of their troops, I felled with weapons…I cut off their hands to the wrist, I cut off their noses, ears and fingers; I put out their eyes, and burned their young men and women to death.”
  • - King Ashurbanipal

King Ashurbanipal lays siege to a city.

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The Lion Kings of Assyria

The Lion Kings of Assyria

  • Army was well-organized and efficient.
  • Infantry, cavalry and horse drawn chariots gave the Assyrians complete power in the region.
  • 1st equipped with iron swords, spears and shields.

The Assyrian army laid siege to this city by crossing a river using inflated animal skins.

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The Lion Kings of Assyria

The Lion Kings of Assyria

  • Great Military Engineers - 1st to use catapults and siege weapons.
  • Infamous for their cruelty. Smashed dams, looted towns, posted the heads of their enemies on stakes on the tops of city walls.
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The Lion Kings of Assyria

The Lion Kings of Assyria

  • The Assyrian kings built extravagant palaces.
  • Established the first library at Nineveh.
  • Started the 1stpostalnetwork with horse men to relay messages.

Assyrian King Ashurbanipal above, built the great library at Nineveh. Photo courtesy of Wikipedia Commons.

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Check for Understanding

Check for Understanding

  • What were Hammurabi’s laws called?
  • How would you describe these laws?
  • What was Hammurabi’s army nicknamed?
  • How would you describe the Assyrian kings?
  • Which civilization is best known for the cruelty of its army?
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Chaldean Babylon - Nebuchadnezzar II

Chaldean Babylon - Nebuchadnezzar II

  • King Nebuchadnezzar II, re-builtBabylon and made it the center of his empire.
  • Nebuchadnezzar is best remembered for his building of the HangingGardens and the Babylonian Captivity.
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Chaldean Babylon - Nebuchadnezzar II

Chaldean Babylon - Nebuchadnezzar II

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The Hanging Gardens

The Hanging Gardens

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The Ishtar Gate

The Ishtar Gate

  • 1 of 8Gates built by King Nebuchadnezzar II.
  • Dedicated to the goddess Ishtar, this inner gate was the processional entrance into Babylon.

The Ishtar Gate

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The Ishtar Gate

The Ishtar Gate

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The Babylonian Captivity

The Babylonian Captivity

  • In 597 BC, Israelfell to Nebuchadnezzar. Solomon’s temple was sacked and the Jews were enslaved and taken to Babylon.
  • They remained enslaved until 539.
  • This was called the Babylonian Captivity.

Jews taken captive back to Babylon.

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The Babylonian Captivity

The Babylonian Captivity

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The Persian Empire

The Persian Empire

  • The Persians arose from a mountain tribe in S. Iran.
  • Within a single generation, they were established as the #1power in the world.
  • They were known for their spectacular military success, their wealth and invincibility.
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The Persian Empire

The Persian Empire

  • The Khorasan Highway – or the King’s Highway allowed the Persians to create the 1stmulti-culturalempire in the world. The Persians were tolerant rulers, but each citizen was a subject of the king.
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Persia - Cyrus the Great

Persia - Cyrus the Great

  • Cyrus the Great was an Indo European and Persian. (Iran)
  • He liberated the Jews and allowed them to return home.
  • He created a powerfulPersianempire in 559 BC, that lasted until Alexander’s conquest in 330 BC.

Cyrus the Great

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Persian Kings - Darius

Persian Kings - Darius

  • Persian Kings had absolutepower.
  • Divided empire into 20satraps or provinces ruled by a governor.
  • Collected taxes, provided justice and security. Recruited soldiers for the king’s army.

Painting of Baghdad.

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Persian Kings - Darius

Persian Kings - Darius

  • Darius’ Army –
  • 10,000 men in the Cavalry.
  • Elite Infantry of 10,000 men called the “Immortals.” (Their numbers were never allowed to drop below 10,000).
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Persian Religion

Persian Religion

  • The religion that developed in Persia was Zoroastrianism.
  • Zoroastrianism – monotheisticreligion.
  • Believed in AhuraMazda, the “Wise lord," and divine judgment.
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Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great

  • In 330 BC, Alexander the Great will defeat the Persian King, Darius.
  • Key Battles – Issus Granicus, and Gaugamela.
  • Alexander will go on to conquer the known world.

Alexander the Great

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Check for Understanding

Check for Understanding

  • What kind of power did Persian kings have?
  • What nickname was given to Darius’ infantry?
  • What religion developed in Persia?
  • Who will finally defeat the Persians?