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Assyria. “THE EMPIRE OF WARRIORS”. Informations about Assyria. Assyrians are Semitic people living in the north and northwest part of Babylon. Most of the people in Assyria were Ilitirate The name Assyria came from there war god’s name “ Assur ”.

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informations about assyria
Informations about Assyria
  • Assyrians are Semitic people living in the north and northwest part of Babylon.
  • Most of the people in Assyria were Ilitirate
  • The name Assyria came from there war god’s name “Assur”

There existed four cities in the control of Assyria namely; Ashur, Arbela, Nimrud(Calah), and Nineveh.

  • Ashur was also named after the god Assur.Ashur was the first capital, it provided residence for the kings till they felt the scorching heat of the sun and the attacks of their neighboring Babylonians.
  • Nineveh was named after tegodess “Nina” the Ishtar of Akkadia. She was the godess of fertility, love, war, and sex. After Ashur Nineveh was there second capital.

There common language and arts was from the Sumerians, but later they modified it into an almost undistinguishable similarity to the arts and language of Babylon

  • The Assyrian people was the most feared and most warlike and cruel people in there time.
  • They were the first to equip there soldiers iron weapons, they also mastered the tactics of light horse drawn chariots.
  • They attack the cities psychologically, first they bring there “cup-bearers”(representatives of the king), to try to talk to the kings so that there will be no armed conflicts.
  • But when they do not agree, soldiers will encircle the city and will chant there war cries to convince the defenders that they will never win.
  • Assyrian kings are so superstitious, they will not go to war without consulting there diviners. They also make detailed reports and submit it into there god Assur’sstatue.

Tiglath-Pileser III established the most efficient military, financial, and administrative system.

  • He made the military the heart of the state and abolished the militia organization in exchange with a permanent standing army.
  • There prosperity relied on war. There money was from the wealth they recover from the empires they attacked, and from the supervision of trade and finance.
  • The semi military bureaucracy carried out the functions of the government in the homes and on the conquered places.
  • Tiglath-PileserIII really made the Assyria a military controled empire.
the fall of assyria
The fall of Assyria
  • The next king after Tiglath-Pileser III was, Ashurbanipal.
  • He was the king who had ordered to build the Great liblary which contains thousand of clay tablets.
  • At his time Egypt was fully colonized by the Assyrians. (Note; the king before him who ordered the attacks was Esarhadon)
  • He made his brother, Samassumyukinthe viceroy of Babylonia. But his brother turned on him and claimed he was the successor of the monarchs that whose empire had once stretched to the Mediterranean.
  • This brought uprisings which shook the Assyrian empire. After years of war, his brother was pacified and was put to death.(In this time Egypt recovered its indipendence)

But yet another disaster came, a civil war occurred in Elam the land was destroyed, many died and the empire was nearly dead.

  • It wasn’t clear if this downfall was only caused by Babylonian and Medes. But recent studies says that a civil war occurred.
  • It was said that Asurbanipal had a twin sons, he declared Ashur-Etil-Ilani as his successor, but his brother Sin-Shar-Ishkun did not recognize him. Then a war between the twins broke out, thus causing the civil war.
  • After the death of the king, Ashur-Etil-Ilani took the place of the king. But one of his general in the name of Sin-Shar-Ishkun rebelled against him and proclaimed himself the counter-king. He succeeded in getting the crown.

This chains of war exhausted the Assyrian empire which opened them up to other empires. There once feared empire fell down in a matter of years.

  • This attacks was from the Scythians and Medes.
  • Ashur-UballitII was the last king of the Assyrian Empire
  • In 609 the remaining Assyrian troops had to capitulate. With this event Assyria disappeared from history. The great empires that succeeded it learned a great deal from the Assyrians, both in the arts and in the organization of their states.

List of Kings

House of Shamshi-AdadShamshi-Adad I c. 1813-1781 Ishme-Dagan I c. 1780-1741 Mut-Ashkur, c. 1740-1730 Rimu......, c. 1730-1727 Asinum, c. 1726 Usurpers Puzur-Sin, c. 1726-1707 Ashur-dugul, c. 1706- Ashur-apla-idiNasir-Sin Sin-namirIpqi-Ishtar Adad-salulu, -1701

House of Adasi* Adasi, c. 1701 Belu-bani, c. 1700-1691

*Adasi was the last of the usurpers. His dynasty lasts until 1014 BC

  • Libaia 1690-1673 BC Sharma-Adad I 1673-1661 BC Iptar-Sin 1661-1649 BC Bazaia. 1649-1621 BC Lullaia 1621-1615 BC Kidin-Ninua 1615-1601 BC Sharma-Adad II 1601-1598 BC Erishum III 1598-1585 BC Shamshi-Adad II. 1585-1579 BC Ishme-Dagan II. 1579-1563 BC Shamshi-Adad III 1563-1547 BC Ashur-Nirari I. 1547-1521 BC Puzur-Ashur III 1521-1497 BC Enlil-Nasir I. 1497-1483 BC Nur-Ili1483-c. 1475 BC

Mitanni vassalage Ashur-Shaduni. 1475 -1472 BC Ashur-Rabi I. 1472-1452 BC Ashur-Nadin-Ahhe I. 1452-1432 BC Enlil-Nasir II. 1432-1426 BC Ashur-Nirari II. 1426-1419 BC Ashur-Bel-Nisheshu 1419-1410 BC Ashur-Rim-Nisheshu. 1410-1402 BC Ashur-Nadin-Ahhe II 1402-1392 BC Eriba-AdadI. 1392-1365 BC Ashur-Uballit I. 1365-1329 BC

Enlil-Nirari. 1329-1319 BC Arik-Den-Ili 1319-1307 BC Adad-Nirari I. 1307-1274 BC Shalmaneser I 1274-1244 BC Tukulti-Ninurta I. 1244-1207 BC Ashur-Nadin-Apli 1207-1203 BC Ashur-Nirari III. 1203-1197 BC Enlil-Kudurri-Usur. 1197-1192 BC Ninurta-Apil-Ekur I. 1192-1180 BC Ashur-Dan I. .1180- ? Ninurta-Tukulti-Ashur (?) Mutakkil-Nusku. 1179-1133 BC Ashur-Resh-Ishi. 1133-1115 BC Tiglathpileser I (Tukulti-apal-Esharra), 1115-1077 Ashared-apil-Ekur, 1076-1075 Ashur-bel-kala, 1074-1057 Eriba-Adad II, 1056-1055 Shamshi-Adad IV, 1054-1051 Ashurnasirpal I, 1050-1032 Shalmaneser II, 1031-1020 Ashur-nirariIV, 1019-1014


House of Ashur-rabi II Ashur-rabi II, 1013-973 Ashur-resha-ishi II, 972-968 Tiglathpileser II, 967-935 Ashur-Dan II 935-911 BC Adad-Nirari II. 911-889 BC Tukulti-Ninurta II. 889-884 BC Ashur-Nasir-Pal II. 884-859 BC Shalmaneser III. 859-824 BC Shamshi-Adad V. 824-811 BC Adad-Nirari III 811-782 BC Shalmaneser IV. 782-772 BC Ashur-Dan III 772-754 BC Ashur-Nirari IV. 754-745 BC Tiglath-Pileser III. 745-727 BC Shalmaneser V. 727-722 BC’

House of Sargon II Sargon II. 722-705 BC Sennecherib 705-681 BC Esarhaddon. 681-669 BC Ashur-Bani-Pal. 669-626 BC Ashur-Etil-Ilani. 626-621 opposed by Sin-Shum-Lishir the Usurper 626 -? BC Sin-Shar-Ishkun. 621-612 BC Ashur-Uballit II. 612-609 BC