Assyria FEARSOME. FEARLESS. FRIGHTENING. ASSYRIA. John Macdonald, Kevin McCoy, Ryan McGarvey, William Plunkett, Robert Weigman
Esarhaddon • Became king of Assyria in 681 B.C after his notorious father, Sennacherib, was assassinated after besieging Jerusalem • The first great kind after many poor ones • Vassals tried to invade, Esarhaddon’s Assyria conquered and added 2 Vassal provinces
More on Esarhaddonon • Created a peace treaty with Elam in Iran • Peace treaty is a huge deal because the Muslim, Elam is long time rivals to the Christian, Assyria who is surrounded by other Muslim fundamentalist countries • Conquered Egypt, another very successful Muslim state • After many years of failing health, Esarhaddon died in 669 B.C on his way to the Nile, in Egypt
2371 B.C. - Sargon of Akkad creates 1st Assyrian kingdom 1307 B.C. Adad-nariri starts 1st Assyrian empire 4750 B.C. 1st temple of Ashur built
934 B.C. – Period of Neo-Assyrian empire begins; PEAK POWER 752 B.C. - Aramaic becomes official language of Assyria 1115 B.C. - Tiglath-Pilseser creates 2nd Assyrian empire
609 B.C. - Ashur-uballit is crowned new king of Assyria in Harran 609 B.C. - Chaldean defeats Egypt, Assyria soon falls 612 B.C. - Neo-Assyrian Empire collapses
256 A. D. Assyrian Church of East established 600 A.D. - Period of the Assyrian Religious Empire begins 350 B.C. - Assyrians try to reestablish kingdom, Persia squashes efforts 0 A.D.
Culture Intro “I slew one of every two. I built a wall before the great gates of the city; I flayed the chief man of the rebels, and I covered the walls with their skins. Some of them were enclosed within the wall; some of them were crucified with stakes along the wall; I caused a great multitude of them to be flayed in my presence and I covered the wall with their skins.” –An Assyrian King (Cottrell 89)
Culture • Conquest above all • 1 story houses • Sculptures and carvings important • Mostly small villages centered around farming • Economy mostly farming and treasure from war • Ruled by a king who only answers to his court • Class system
Class System King Ruling family, *millitary commanders, officials Men of trades Pesants and slaves
Tactics • If city resists capture: • Citizens butchered; leaders tortured, skinned alive, impaled on stakes • City looted and burned • To avoid nationalist revolts, large groups deported • Iron swords, lances, metal armor, battering rams • Largest ever army in Middle East/ Mediterranean
Assyro-Babylonian Religion • Polythesitic • Assur= main god • Conquered people do not have to follow religion • King is the high priest and representative of Assur • Interpreted events of nature as signs from the gods
Assyro-Babylonian Religion • Apsu and Tiamat have Assur and Kishar • Apsu wants to kill children because they’re too loud • Ea kills Apsu because of this • Tiamat avenges Apsu, starts war • She loses, cut in half • Half her body holds up sky, eyes become source of Tigris and Euphrates
Short and Long Term Impacts -They had military taxation and uniform calendar which some countries have today -Were the first civilization and empire -Were roots on which civilizations built on and had a powerful art culture
Works Cited Betbasso, Peter. Brief History of the Assyrians. 16 February 2009. 20 September 2010 <http://www.aina.org/aol/peter/brief.htm>. —. Timeline of Assyrian History. 19 October 2003. 20 September 2010 <http://www.aina.org/aol/peter/timeline.htm>. Carr, Karen. Assyrians. 10 May 2010. 20 September 2010 <http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/westasia/history/assyrians.htm>. Cottrell, Leonard. Land of the two Rivers. Cleveland: The World Publishing Company, 1962. Highlights from the Collection: Assyria. 7 February 2007. 20 September 2010 <http://oi.uchicago.edu/museum/highlights/assyria.html>. Hooker, Richard. The Assyrians. 1996. 18 September 2010 <http://wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/ASSYRIA.HTM>. Kjeilen, Tore. Assyria . 21 September 2010 <http://i-cias.com/e.o/assyria.htm>. Letters, queries, and reports. 16 September 2010. 2010 September 2010 <http://knp.prs.heacademy.ac.uk/lettersqueriesandreports/>. Radner, Karen. Esarhaddon, king of Assyria (681-669). 2010. 20 September 2010 <http://knp.prs.heacademy.ac.uk/essentials/esarhaddon/>. Siren, Christopher. The Assyro-Babylonian Mythology FAQ. October 2003. 21 September 2010 <pubpages.unh.edu/~cbsiren/assyrbabyl-faq.html>. THE ASSYRIAN EMPIRE. 17 May 2006. <http://www.portergaud.edu/academic/faculty/cmcarver/asyr.html>.