India What I know About India What I Want to Learn About India What I Learned About India
India Geography TTYN:How does geography help shape civilizations? • Small Group Activity • Work cooperatively, identify key geographical locations on the map located in your notes packet. Refer to your textbook. • Physical • Political
India What is the message within this poem? “The summer sun, who robbed the pleasant nights. And plundered all the water of the rivers. And burned the earth, and scorched the forest-trees Is now hiding; and the rain-clouds, Spread thick across the sky to track him down. Hunt for the criminal with lightning flashes.” Geography Small Group Activity
India Geography • Monsoon – a seasonal wind • Winter – blows from the NE, bringing with it hot, dry air that withers crops • May-June – the wet summer monsoon blows from the SW. Packed with moisture from the Indian Ocean. • The monsoon has shaped Indian life. • Rain for cops; If later, famine and starvation may occur
India Geography Of India
India The First Indian Civilization: Indus Valley Civilization • Emerged in the Indus River Valley (present-day Pakistan) • 2500 B.C.E. • After 1,000 years of prosperity, it vanished without a trace • Only in this century have archeologists unearthed the remains of the Indus River Valley • No names of kings, tax records, literature, or accounts of famous victories.
India The First Indian Civilization: Indus Valley Civilization • Decline??? • Ecological disasters?? • Volcanic eruption which blocked the flow of the Indus?? • Earthquake?? • Many scholars speculate that around 1500 B.C.E., nomads (The Aryans) from the north arrived.
India The Vedic Age 1500 B.C.E. – 500 B.C.E. • The Aryans • Built no cities and left no statues • Vedas – collection of prayers, hymn, and other religious teachings
India The Vedic Age 1500 B.C.E. – 500 B.C.E. • What the Vedas tell us: • Aryans were warriors • Fought with chariots, bows and arrows • Valued cattle • Divided people by occupation; three basic groups – Brahmins (priests), Kshatriyas (warriors), and the Vaisyas (herders, farmers, artisans, and merchants) • Religion – polytheistic – gods or goddesses that embodied the sun, storm, and fire.
Hinduism Basic Tenants of Hinduism Universal Spirit or Brahman Hindu thinkers came to believe that everything in the universe was part of the unchanging, all-powerful spiritual force called brahman. According to Swami Sivananda, one of the great Yoga masters of the 20th century “Brahman or the Supreme Self is beyond time and space, causation. He is limitless. He is tranquil. He shines with equal effulgence in all bodies. He cannot be any particular thing. He is Chaitanya or pure consciousness. He is Vastu, Atman or Brahman or the Supreme Self is the hidden treasure. It is the jewel of jewels. It is gem of gems. It is the imperishable, inexhaustible supreme wealth, which no dacoit can rob. It is Chintamani of Chintamanis that will give man whatever he wishes.” In other words, brahman is too complex an idea for most people to comprehend, so they worships gods that give a concrete form to brahman.
Hinduism Basic Tenants of Hinduism To Hindus, every person has an essential self, or atman. Atman is just another name for brahman. For Hindus, the ultimate goal of existence is to achieve moksha (MAHK SHUH), or union with brahman. To accomplish this – you must free yourself from selfish desires. Because Hindus believe that this goal cannot be completed in just one lifetime, they believe in reincarnation. Thus, through reincarnation, you are able to continue working towards moksha. Karma All actions of a person’s life that affect their next life Dharma Religious and moral duties. These duties vary according to class, occupation, gender, or age. By obeying one’s dharma, a person acquires merit for the next life. Hinduism provides direction to the daily lives of Hindus. It teaches that people should remain in their social group or caste
Hinduism Caste System • Caste System - rigid class structure based on Hinduism which is found in India. • Believed that if one leads a good life, following good karma and • dharma, they will be rewarded by being reincarnated as a person belonging to the next highest level in the Caste System. • If one is wicked during their life, they will be demoted, and possibly even removed from the Caste System altogether.
Hinduism Caste System The caste system is an important part of Hinduism. Caste are social groups into which people are born and out of which they cannot move during a lifetime. In Next Life In This Life If good and obeys caste rules Higher Caste A Person Is born into a caste Lower Caste If bad and breaks caste rules
Hinduism TTYN – complete the graphic organizer with important facts about Hinduism Hinduism Sacred Texts Vedas and Upinshads
Buddhism Timeline Buddhism currently has about 376 million followers and is generally listed as the world's fourth largest religion. Buddhism shares many of the core concepts of Hinduism. Buddha or the “Enlightened One” was born a Hindu in 500 B.C. Founder Siaddhartha Gautama or Buddha Geography Sacred Text Tripitaka or “Three Baskets of Wisdom”
India Small Group Activity Caste System (writing activity): Imagine you have been reincarnated into an ancient Indian caste (Choose one). Write a short essay describing how you feel being born into this caste. Do you think the caste system is fair? Why or why not? Explain your opinion. This letter must be at least two well-organized paragraphs in length and as detailed as possible.
India What I know About India What I Want to Learn About India What I Learned About India
India The Maurya Empire • Asoka, grandson of Chandragupta; the most honored emperor • Mauryan reached its greatest glory • The Two Asoka’s - • Fought a long and bloody war to conquer the Deccan region • Horrified at the slaughter (over 100K) dead – turned his back on further conquests • Converted to Buddhism- rejected violence; rules by a moral code
India The Maurya Empire • “All people are my children, and just as I desire for my children that they should obtain welfare and happiness, both in this world and the next, so do I desire the same for all people” • Took steps to help his “children” • building roads, rest houses for travelers, and hospitals. • Preached tolerance for other religions
India • Economy • India developed into a center of world trade • Textiles, gems, incense, and spices • Relationship with Rome and Alexander the Great • Most goods produced and shipped to Rome came from cities from the Deccan Valley
India Decline of Gupta • Weak rulers • Civil war • Foreign invaders • White Huns • Destroyed cities and trade • Split into many kingdoms • Rival princes battled for control of the northern plain • India brakes away into small, individual kingdoms
India The Muslim Influence • Early 700’s, Muslims Raiders conquer what is present day Pakistan (Sind) • 1200’s, most of Northern India is control by Muslims • Around the same time, Mongols invade India • New gov’t becomes Delhi of Sultanate • Tolerance - allowed traditions, cultures, and other religions to exist • 1398, Delhi sacked by Tamerlane (Mongol Ruler)
India The Muslim Effect • Who was Tamerlane? • TTYN: Interpret the following passage by Tamerlane or Timour • “As there is but one God in heaven,” “there ought to be but one ruler on the earth.” • Goal – make himself master of all of Central Asia • Had an immense army • Raped and Pillaged Delhi
India Mughal Dynasty 1526-1760 • 1526, Turkish and Mongol invaders pour through the mountain passes in India • Barbur – A Turkish-Mongol Prince; descendent of Genghiz Khan and Tamerlane
India Conversion of the Indian People • Social Change: End slavery and the Caste system • Improve the position of women within the family • for example, outlawed the practice of Sati, which called for Hindu women to join their husband in death by throwing herself on his funeral fire.
India • Nationalist Movement • Western-educated Indians emerge; lead the nationalist movement • schooled in western ideals such as democracy and equality • 1855, Indian National Congress organized …The Congress Party • Professionals and Business leaders – believed in peaceful protest • Believed in western-style modernization
India • Nationalist Movement • 1906, Muslim League created • feared that the Congress Party was becoming too strongly dominated by Hindus • The Radical Side to Nationalism • Restore Indian languages and Hindu and Muslim cultures • By the early 1900s protests and resistance increased • Demanded not only self-rule but complete independence
India • Nationalist Movement • WWI – Indians participate in war along side G.B. • TTYN - Whose interests were they fighting for???? • Began to realize that the terrible tragedies of war cast doubt on British claim of superiority • 1919, Amritsar Massacre • 1935, Government of India Act • limited self-gov’t
Thematic Essay Question • The Industrial Revolution in Western Europe during the 19th century led to shortages of much needed resources and raw materials. This resulted in these nation imperializing nonindustrialiezed regions of the world • Task: • Define “imperialism” • Using India as your “imperialized” region, give one specific example showing how imperialism affected India • Assess whether imperialism was either positive or negative for India