-Much information on how radio was developed -The beginning of radio in the Bahamas to present day radio
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1820: Hans Christian Ørsted revealed the relationship between electricity and magnetism in a very simple experiment. He demonstrated that a wire carrying a current was able to deflect a magnetized compass needle.
1831: Michael Faraday began a series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction. Faraday suggested that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor, but did not complete that work.
Hans Christian Ørsted
1860s: James Clerk Maxwell predicted the existence of radio waves He proved it with math, and published his findings in many papers. Much of this work was performed during his time at Kings College in London. His work was summarized in a book entitled "Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism."
1866: Mahlon Loomis successfully demonstrated "wireless telegraphy". He was able to make a meter that was connected to one kite cause another to move, marking the first known instance of wireless, aerial communication.
1873: Maxwell, as a result of experiments, first described the theoretical basis of the propagation of electromagnetic waves in his paper, A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field.1850-1875 (cont.)
James Clerk Maxwell
Before radio, the main means of communication were either telegraph or messenger.
one of the inventions that sparked the creation of wireless radio.
1877: Thomas Edison patents his talking machine.
1878: David E. Hughes was the first to transmit and receive radio waves when he noticed that his induction balance caused noise in the receiver of his homemade telephone.
1880: David Hughes demonstrated his discovery to the Royal Society, but was told it was merely induction—the production of voltage across a conductor within a moving or static magnetic field.
1884: Temistocle Calzecchi-Onesti in Italy invented a tube filled with iron filings, called a "coherer"--a primitive form of radio signal detector.
1884 to 1886: Edouard Branly of France produced an improved version of the coherer.
1885: Thomas Edison took out a patent on a system of radio communication between ships, which he then sold to Guglielmo Marconi.
1886: Heinrich Rudolph Hertz demonstrated that rapid variations of electric current could be projected into space in the form of radio waves similar to those of light and heat.
1887: Emile Berliner, German, develops the gramophone and sophisticated microphone (his company is RCA Victor Records)
1893: In Missouri, Nikola Tesla gave a public demonstration of "wireless" radio communication. He addressed the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, describing in detail the principles of radio communication.
The apparatus that he used contained all the elements that were incorporated into radio systems before the development of the "oscillation valve"; the early vacuum tube—a device used to control electrical current thru manipulation of electrons.
Afterwards, the principle of sending signals through space to receivers—radio communication— was publicized widely. Various scientists, inventors, and experimenters begin to investigate wireless methods.
An early vacuum tube
1895: Guglielmo Marconi—known as the father of sound— sent and received his first radio signal in Italy. He proved the plausibility of radio communication.
1899: Marconi flashed the first wireless signal across the English Channel and two years later received his first message.
1902: Marconi received the letter "S", telegraphed from England to Newfoundland. This was the first successful transatlantic radiotelegraph message.
The “father of sound”
Marconi and associates raising the receiving antenna by kite at St. John's, Newfoundland in December, 1901
Past 50 Years
Radio was the first electronic mass medium
It was the first broadcast medium
It was the young people’s media
Radio is personal
Radio is mobile
Number of stations – 17
Penetration - 100% of population
Commercial time per hour - average 6-12 minutes
Audience peaks - morning/afternoon drive time, midday talk shows.
Over the years, some of the regulations and practices of radio that were used by American radio stations were adopted by Bahamian radio stations.
billings – dollars earned from the sale of airtime
deregulation – relaxation of ownership and other rules for radio and television
duopoly – one person or company owning and managing multiple radio stations in a single market
LPFM – low power FM – 10- to 100- watt nonprofit community radio stations with a reach of only a few miles
cover – recording of one artist’s music by another artist
Syndication – sale of radio or television content to stations on a market-by- market basis
Some of the new technologies afforded to Americans are currently available in the Bahamas.
DMX – digital music express – home delivery of audio by cable
DARS – digital audio radio service – direct home or automobile delivery of audio by satellite
Streaming – the simultaneous downloading and accessing (playing) of digital audio or video data
Digital recording – the recording of sound based on conversion of sound into binary code logged into millisecond intervals in a computerized translation process
Web radio – the delivery of radio over the Internet directly to individual listeners
Podcasting – recording and downloading of audio files stored on servers
MP3 – file compression software that permits streaming of digital audio and video data
Modem – a device that translates digital computer information into an analog form so it can be transmitted through telephone lines
Open source software – freely downloaded software
P2P – peer-to-peer software that permits direct Internet-based communication or collaboration between two or more personal computers while bypassing centralized servers
BitTorrent – file-sharing software that allows users to create “swarms” of data as they simultaneously download and upload bits of a file
As a result of the adoption of these regulations and practices, along with new technological advancements, the problems associated with them also arose.
Dominance of profit over artistry
Cultural homogenization; lack of individuality
Infringement upon artistic freedom
Promotion overshadows the music
Piracy- illegal downloading of files
Some regulations which were not adopted by Bahamian radio are greatly needed in our society today, to preserve individuality and wholesomeness of radio culture.
trustee model – in broadcast regulation, the idea that broadcasters serve as the public’s trustees or fiduciaries
spectrum scarcity - broadcast spectrum space is limited, so not everyone who wants to broadcast can; those who are granted licenses must accept regulation. It also ensures power.
All pictures from Wikipedia, unless listed on the next page.