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19th Century England. An Overview. The Industrial Revolution in England. The Industrial Revolution increased productivity and standard of living People had new opportunities , knowledge, and physical means

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the industrial revolution in england
The Industrial Revolution in England
  • The Industrial Revolution increased productivity and standard of living
  • People had new opportunities, knowledge, and physical means
  • "the Industrial Revolution was no mere sequence of changes in industrial techniques and production, but a social revolution with social causes as well as profound social effects" [The Origins of Modern English Society, 1780-1880 (1969)]
a time of invention
A Time of Invention
  • Steamboat (Henry Bell, 1811)
  • Steam locomotive (George Trevithick, 1801)
  • Gas mines (1812)
  • Newspaper (The Times, November 29, 1814)
  • Road improvements (Thomas Telford and John Loudon Macadam, 1815)
  • Public railways (George Stephenson, 1820)
  • To learn more about transportation during the period go to http://www.literary-liaisons.com/article033.html
socioeconomic cultural change
Socioeconomic & Cultural Change
  • Growth of cities: huge numbers of houses, overcrowded and unhealthy – cholera spread through dirty water
  • Many people were driven to the cities to look for work
  • Small children worked in factories for long days
dangers punishment
Dangers & Punishment
  • Children who worked long hours in the textile mills became very tired
  • Children who were late for work were severely punished
  • Children were usually hit with a strap to make them work faster
  • Children were also punished for arriving late for work and for talking to the other children
child labor laws
Child Labor Laws
  • The first Factory Act passed by the British Parliament was called "The Factory Health and Morals Act, 1802" and applied principally to children and female workers.
  • The regulations, briefly stated, were the followings:
    • The master or mistress of the factory must obey the law
    • All rooms in a factory are to be washed twice a year and well ventilated
    • Every worker is to be supplied with two complete suits of clothing, stockings, hats, and shoes
    • The hours of work are not to exceed twelve a day
    • Male and female workers are to be provided with separate sleeping apartments, and not more than two to sleep in one bed
    • On Sunday they are to be instructed in the principles of the Christian religion
the middle class
The Middle Class
  • Industry, job opportunities, increased wages, and vision created a new class: the middle class
  • This group consisted of factory owners, bankers, shopkeepers, merchants, lawyers, engineers, and other professionals
  • The new class was gaining power through economic and social means, not because of inherited titles or lands
  • The middle class was also sensitive to fashion
another story in the 19 th century great hunger
Another Story in the 19th Century:Great Hunger
  • People lived in Ireland depended on potatoes
  • 1845 – 1849: a fungus affected the potato crop in Southern England and Ireland-- a famine struck Ireland
  • The situation was made worse by the Corn Law: taxing imported corn by British
  • Thousand Irish emigrated to the U.S.

Read the chapter(s) in your module about this age.

  • Answer each question provided there in your group.
  • Submit it on my desk.