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carol-ferguson

19th Century Europe - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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19th Century Europe
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  1. 19th Century Europe

  2. Europe in 1812

  3. The Congress of Vienna(September 1, 1814 – June 9, 1815)

  4. Congress of Vienna’s Main Objectives • Presided by Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria– Great Britain, Austria, Prussia & Russia • It’s job was to undo everything that Napoléon had done: • Reduce France to its old boundaries her frontiers were pushed back to 1790 level. • Restore as many of the old monarchies as possible that had lost their thrones during the Napoléonic era. Principle of Legitimacy • Supported the resolution: There is always an alternative to conflict.

  5. The great powers were concerned with containing revolution. They believed in the philosophy of conservatism. Based on tradition and in value of social stability Hated revolution Unwilling to allow individual rights or representative governments 19th Century Conservatism Conservatism

  6. Maintain balance of power Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, Austria & later France agreed to meet in the future. Conference would take steps to maintain peace in Europe Concert of Europe Adopted Principle of Intervention great powers had right to send armies into countries threatened by revolution to restore order Britain argued that Concert of Europe should not interfere in internal affairs of other countries Concert of Europe

  7. Key Players at Vienna Foreign Minister, Viscount Castlereagh (Br.) Tsar Alexander I (Rus.) The “Host”Prince Klemens von Metternich (Aus.) King Frederick William III (Prus.) Foreign Minister, Charles Maurice de Tallyrand (Fr.)

  8. Key Principles Established at Vienna • Balance of Power • Legitimacy • Compensation • Coalition forces would occupy France for 3-5 years. • France would have to pay an indemnity of 700,000,000 francs.

  9. Changes Made at Vienna (1) • France was deprived of all territory conquered by Napoléon. • Russia was given most of Duchy of Warsaw (Poland). • Prussia was given half of Saxony, parts of Poland, and other German territories. • A Germanic Confederation of 30+ states (including Prussia) was created from the previous 300, under Austrian rule. • Austria was given back territory it had lost recently, plus more in Germany and Italy. • The House of Orange was given the Dutch Republic and the Austrian Netherlands to rule.

  10. The Germanic Confederation, 1815

  11. Changes Made at Vienna (2) • Norway and Sweden were joined. • The neutrality of Switzerland was guaranteed. • Britain was given Cape Colony, South Africa, and various other colonies in Africa and Asia. • The slave trade was condemned (at British urging). • Freedom of navigation was guaranteed for many rivers.

  12. Europe After the Congress of Vienna

  13. Liberalism belief people should be as free as possible from government restraint Bill of Rights Religious toleration Constitutional government Suffrage only to property owning males -not democracy Feared mob rule Forces of Change (1)

  14. Nationalismthe unique cultural identity of a people based on common language, religion, and national symbols Not popular until French Revolution Threat to existing political order At first, closely linked to liberalism No state should attempt to rule another state Forces of Change (2)

  15. Revolutions of 1848

  16. France overthrow of King Charles X; established constitutional monarchy (1830) Belgium rebelled against Dutch Republic; created independent state (1830) Poland attempted to rebel against Russia; unsuccessful (1830) Italy attempted to rebel against Austria; unsuccessful (1830) Revolutionary Outbursts in 19th C.

  17. Causes Severe economic hardships of the lower classes Middle class wanted suffrage rights Revolutions of 1848France • Effects • Louis Philippe overthrown • Universal male suffrage granted • Set up national workshops gave jobs but emptied treasury • New constitution sets up 2nd Republic under Charles Louis Napoleon (Louis-Napoleon)

  18. Causes Leaders promised constitutions, free press, jury trials, and other liberal reforms did not actually do any Frankfurt Assembly formed to bring liberal reforms failed Frederick William IV of Prussia refused to take throne so no leader to enforce rules Revolutions of 1848German States • Effects • The unification of Germany would wait!

  19. Revolutions of 1848Central Europe • Causes • Austria was a multinational state different peoples (Germans, Czechs, Magyars (Hungary), Slovaks, Romanians, Slovenes, Poles, Croats, Serbians, Ruthenians (Ukrainians) and Italians one Austrian Hapsburg ruler presiding • Germans played leading role despite not being majority

  20. Revolutions of 1848Central Europe • Effects • Prince Klemens von Metternich ousted! • Revolutionary forces seized Vienna demanded liberal constitution • Hungary got its own legislature • Bohemia Austrian army crushed Czech rebellion with help of Russian army Revolutions in Austrian Empire had failed!

  21. Revolutions of 1848Italian States • Causes • Congress of Vienna set up 9 Italian States under various control • Lombardy & Venetia under Austrian Empire. • All wanted autonomy so they could unite Italy rebellions against Austrian Empire largely failed • Effects • The unification of Italy would wait!

  22. National Unification & Nationalism

  23. Causes Russia (wanted warm water ports in Balkans) vs. Ottoman Empire (authority in Balkans weakening as empire in decline) over Balkan Territories Other Europeans feared Russia would be a threat if they had Balkans Crimean War Causes

  24. Crimean War of 1853-1856

  25. Russia {Needed warm water port & claimed duty to protect Christians in Ottoman EMipre} Ottoman Turks Great Britain France Crimean War of 1853-1856 Balkans

  26. Effects Poorly planned & poorly fought Heavy losses made Russian seek peace Treaty of Paris 1856 Moldavia & Walachia protected by Great Powers Crimean War Effects & Impact • Impact • Destroyed Concert of Europe • Great Powers now enemies (Austria did not support Russia) • Russia withdrew from world events for 20 years • Austria had no friends among great powers

  27. Reunification

  28. The Italian Peninsula

  29. Italian Nationalist Leaders King Victor Emmanuel II Giuseppi Garibaldi[The “Sword”] Giuseppi Mazzini[The “Heart”] Count Cavour[The “Head”]

  30. 1850, Austria still dominant power in Northern Italy Northern Italy Piedmont, ruled by King Victor Emmanuel II & Camillo di Cavor (prime minister) Joined forces with France’s Louis-Napoleon Provoked a war with Austria in 1859 Peace settlement gave Nice & Savoy to France in return for military support Lombardy went to Piedmont; Austria controlled Venetia Italian Unification-North

  31. French Bourbon monarchy controlled the Kingdom of Two Sicilies Southern Italy Giuseppe Garibaldi raised an army of Red Shirts gained control of Kingdom of Two Sicilies Garibaldi turned control over to Victor Emmanuel II of the North Italian Unification-South

  32. Venetia still controlled by Austria Rome was under control of Pope Pius IX Pope was afraid to give up land, feared he would lose power Italy gained Venetia through alliance with Prussia in Austro-Prussian War 1866 Rome was annexed in 1870 Franco-Prussian War when French troops withdrew Rome became capital of united Italy Italian Unification-Venetia & Rome

  33. German Unification Key Players Kaiser Wilhelm I Chancellor Otto von Bismarck

  34. German Confederation

  35. After failed attempts, Germans looked to Prussia Prussia known for its militarism under King William I Otto von Bismarck was appointed prime minister to help military causes. German Confederation

  36. Defeated Denmark with Austrian help 1864 Gained control of Schleswig & Holstein Provoked war with Austria in 1866 Convinced Catholic Southern German States to form alliance with Northern Protestant German States for protection against France Franco-Prussian War over empty throne of Spain 1870 captured French army & Napoleon III Bismarck’s War Policies

  37. Treaty of Versailles 1871 France to pay $5 Billion Francs ($1 Billion today standards) France gives up Alsace & Lorraine The Road to Unification • Unified at last • William I of Prussia proclaimed Kaiser of Second German Reich (Empire)  first was Charlemagne • Strongest power on European continent

  38. Avoided revolution in 1840s: Gave industrial middle class suffrage Continued economic growth increased wages Queen Victoria’s long reign Irish nationalist movement demanding rights caused friction. Reform in Great Britain

  39. Louis-Napoleon asked for plebiscite popular vote 97% voted yes to monarchy & Empire took title of Emperor Napoleon III Second Empire began Authoritarian rule Few rights for individuals ineffective Parliament Liberalized his regime Gave legislature more power After defeat at Franco-Prussian War in 1870; Second Empire fell. Reform in France

  40. Too many different ethnic groups wanting independence Concessions (compromise) made to Hungarians in 1866 Compromise of 1867dual monarchy Austria-Hungary Each had own constitution Own legislature Own bureaucracy Own capital cities (ViennaAustria; BudapestHungary) Common armyCommon financial system Common foreign policy One leader, Francis Joseph Reform in the Austrian Empire

  41. Early 19th c.  still rural; still divine right monarchy (Romanov’s); still authoritarian Soldiers; secret police; repression; censorship Crimean War defeat humiliation forced reforms under Czar Alexander II Emancipation edict freed serfs—own property, marry, land Emancipation led to more problems than solutions Group of radicals assassinated Alexander II. Son, Alexander III turned against reforms and reinstituted authoritarian practices. Reform in Russia