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International Recommendations for the Index of Industrial Production (IIP). United Nations Statistics Division/DESA. History. Index of Industrial Production has been calculated since the 1920s UNSD has collected series going back to 1938

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united nations statistics division desa

International Recommendations for the Index of Industrial

Production (IIP)

United Nations Statistics Division/DESA

  • Index of Industrial Production has been calculated since the 1920s
    • UNSD has collected series going back to 1938
  • Methodology was described in 1950 UN Manual on “Index of industrial production”
    • Number 1 in series of publications on international recommendations and guidelines (Series F)
  • The 1950 manual was not updated
  • However, related guidance materials were published:
    • Guidelines on Principles of a System of Price and Quantity Statistics, 1977
    • Manual on Producers’ Price Indices for Industrial Goods,1979
  • Why a revision of the IIP publication?
    • The previous UN publication on the IIP was published in 1950
    • Methods and approaches have changed over time (e.g. fixed weight vs. chain approaches, volume aggregation vs. deflation, etc.)
  • Why a revision of the IIP publication?
    • Various related standards and international recommendations have been updated over time:
      • International Recommendations for Industrial Statistics 2008
      • System of National Accounts 2008
      • Producer Price Index Manual
      • Classifications (ISIC Rev.4, CPC ver.2)
    • These changes need to be reflected in the updated IIP text
process and timetable for revision
Process and timetable for revision
  • The revision of the IIP has been carried out at the request of the United Nations Statistical Commission
    • Discussion of topics/issues at UN expert group meeting in 2005 & 2007
    • UN IIP country practices questionnaire to all countries – Sept 2007
    • Initial draft and input from countries/organizations – Jan 2008
    • Review of 1st draft by Expert Group) – July 2008
    • Worldwide consultation – Jan 2009
    • Submit to UN Statistical Commission – Feb 2010
objectives of revised iip publication
Objectives of revised IIP publication
  • Outline practical and suitable measurement methods and document issues and benefits from recent theoretical and practical work in the area
  • It is intended to assist compilers in producing more accurate indices of industrial production
  • It helps compilers to produce index numbers in comparable ways so they can serve as reliable international comparisons of economic performance and behavior using the best international practices
objectives of revised iip publication1
Objectives of revised IIP publication
  • This publication also assists countries that plan to set up a more comprehensive systems of volume measures by providing not only the methodological foundations for the index number compilation, but also by giving practical guidance on individual steps and elements of the compilation process
  • It is recognized that due to practical constraints, some of the recommendations in this publication may not be immediately attainable by all statistical offices and, therefore, should serve as guideposts for agencies as they revise and improve their IIP programs
additional inputs considered
Additional inputs considered
  • Recent work on other index number publications:
    • Producer Price Index Manual (World Bank et al., 2004)
    • Consumer Price Index Manual (ILO et al., 2004)
    • Handbook on price and volume measures in national accounts (Eurostat, 2001)
    • Compilation Manual for an Index of Service Production (OECD, 2007)
  • New manual should be consistent with other existing manuals (e.g. IRIS & SNA)
publication structure
Publication structure
  • Part I includes a description of the international recommendations, covering scope, fundamental concepts, etc.
    • It is encouraged that countries comply with the recommendations set out in Part I.
  • Part II includes international guidance to assist countries in implementing these recommendations
    • It presents a set of methods (categorized as ‘preferred’, ‘alternative’ and ‘other’) and variables for each ISIC Rev. 4 class in scope of this publication for the compilation of an IIP, based on current country practices
key issues recommendations
Key issues/recommendations
  • 1: Statistical units, classifications & business register
    • Recommendations outlining - Statistical Units to use; classifications; use of business registers; and data sources (incl. administrative data sources).
  • 2: Frequency
    • Publication recommends monthly compilation of the IIP so that turning points in economic activity can be identified as early as possible
key issues recommendations1
Key issues/recommendations
  • 3: Scope of the IIP:
    • Scope is defined to cover activities in sections B - E of ISIC Rev.4, i.e. Mining and quarrying, Manufacturing, Electricity, gas steam and air-conditioning supply, as well as water supply, sewerage, waste management and remediation activities
      • Section E contains new areas for inclusion in the IIP
      • This scope coincides with the scope of the International Recommendations for Industrial Statistics (IRIS) 2008, which includes the index numbers of industrial production in its list of recommended indicators
key issues recommendations2
Key issues/recommendations
  • 4: Index formula
    • Laspeyres index is recommended
      • Preferred due to feasibility over Paasche or Fischer index
    • Chain linked, rather than fixed base indices are recommended
  • 5: Weights and updates
    • Annual update of weights should be carried out to provide an up-to-date weighting structure for the index.
    • Weights should ideally be National Accounts value added figures – adjustments necessary to make them timely available.
key issues recommendations3
Key issues/recommendations
  • 6: Calculation method
    • Deflation should be used to obtain volume estimates from value data, rather than volume extrapolation method
    • PPI is recommended as deflator
    • Deflation should be done at lowest level, i.e. 4-digit industry level
    • Volume aggregation still works for areas with limited number of products.
key issues recommendations4
Key issues/recommendations
  • 7. Variables to be used
    • To approximate industrial production for the IIP, output measures (value or physical quantity of output) are preferred over input measures (labour or materials consumed)
      • E.g. relationship between labour and production value is affected by various factors, including quality, efficiency etc.
    • The publication provides suggestions for preferred, alternate and other methods for the use of variables in the IIP calculation.
      • Suggestions are specific for each ISIC industry at 4-digit level
key issues recommendations5
Key issues/recommendations
  • 8: Data adjustments
    • Adjustments should be made for quality changes
      • Either through the correction of PPI used in deflation, or
      • by adjusting input data when volume aggregation is used
    • Data series should be produced as work day adjusted as well as seasonal adjusted series
key issues recommendations6
Key issues/recommendations
  • 9: Dissemination
    • The publication outlines elements / requirements for the dissemination of IIP data
    • General requirements for international reporting are set in the International Recommendations for Industrial Statistics (IRIS) 2008
    • UNSD data collection will continue at 2-digit ISIC level for annual and quarterly data, 1-digit ISIC level for monthly data
      • Currently for raw (unadjusted) data only
      • Will switch to ISIC Rev.4 for production of regional IIP
major changes
Major changes
  • Scope
    • Enlarged definition of “industry”
  • Recommended calculation method
    • Deflation vs. volume extrapolation
  • Frequency of weight updates
    • Annual updates vs. 5-yearly updates
    • Chain linking vs. fixed-weight approach
  • Other recommendations, such as on seasonal adjustment or dissemination issues reflect an update of previous recommendations as well