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THE CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS. Unit 26. Preview. History Origins of the Charter Charter of the UN Purposes of the UN Principles of the UN Structure of the UN. First International Organizations. 1865 The International Telecommunication Union

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  2. Preview • History • Origins of the Charter • Charter of the UN • Purposes of the UN • Principles of the UN • Structure of the UN

  3. First International Organizations • 1865 The International Telecommunication Union • 1874 International Telegraph Union; Universal Postal Union

  4. First International Peace Conference • 1899 1st International Peace Conference (The Hague): • 1) the Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes and • 2) the Permanent Court of Arbitration (1902)

  5. The League of Nations • Established in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles • “to promote international cooperation and to achieve peace and security” • 1919 The International Labour Organisation created as an affiliated agency of the League • The League of Nations ceased its activities after failing to prevent the Second World War • Dissolved in 1946; transferral of functions and property to the UN

  6. United Nations: Name • The term UN was coined by Franklin D. Roosevelt; • first used in the “Declaration by United Nations” of 1 Jan. 1942 when representatives of 26 nations pledged their governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers

  7. Origins of the UN Charter • 1941 The Atlantic Charter • 1942 Declarationby United Nations • 1943 TheMoscowConference • 1944 DumbartonOaksProposals • 1944 Yaltaconference

  8. The Atlantic Charter(14 Aug.1941) • Principles laid down by President Rosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill • The Charter did not contemplate the establishment of an organization of States to replace the League • The need of creating a collective security system and establishing strong economic and social cooperation between the States

  9. Declarationby United Nations (1942) Roosevelt, Churchill, Litvinov (USSR),T. V. Soong (China) signed a short document which later came to be known as the United Nations Declaration representatives of 22 other nations added their signatures.

  10. Declarationby United Nations (1942) The original 26 signatories: US, UK, USSR, China, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, DominicanRepublic, El Salvador, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Poland, Union ofSouthAfrica, Yugoslavia

  11. Declarationby United Nations (1942) This important document pledged the signatory governments to the maximum war effort and bound them against making a separate peace.

  12. Declarationby United Nations (1942)

  13. The Moscow Conference (1943) • The Declaration of the Four Nations (U.S., Soviet Union, UK, China) recognized: • “the necessity of establishing ...a general international organization, based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all peace-loving States and open to membership by all such States, large and small, for the maintenance of international peace and security”

  14. DumbartonOaksProposals (October 7, 1944) • Representatives of the same 4 Governments met to lay down the foundations of the future world organization • Purposes of the Organization: to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, promote cooperation in economic and social matters • Basic organs: the Assembly, the Council, the Secretariat, headed by the Secretary General, and the Court of Justice

  15. DumbartonOaksProposals (October 7, 1944) Another important feature:member states were to place armed forces at the disposal of the Security Council in its task of preventing war and suppressing acts of aggression. The absence of such force -a fatal weakness in the League of Nations machinery for preserving peace.

  16. DumbartonOaks

  17. Yaltaconference (11 Feb. 1945) Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin

  18. Yaltaconference(11 Feb. 1945) “We are resolvedupon the earliest possible establishment with our Allies of a general international organization to maintain peace and security…

  19. Yaltaconference(11 Feb. 1945) “We have agreed that a Conference of United Nations should be called to meet at San Francisco in the United States on the 25th April, 1945, to prepare the charter of such an organization, along the lines proposed in the formal conversations of Dumbarton Oaks.”

  20. The San Francisco Conference (April 25 – June 26, 1945) • Representatives of 50 states met to draw up the UN Charter based on Dumbarton Oaks proposals by the Great Powers (China, the Soviet Union, the UK, the US) • The Charter – unanimously approved and signed by all the participating States, original members of the UN

  21. The San Francisco Conference (April 25 – June 26, 1945)

  22. United NationsCharter "The Charter of the United Nations which you have just signedis a solid structure upon which we can build a better world. History will honor you for it. Between the victory in Europe and the final victory, in this most destructive of all wars, you have won a victory against war itself. . . . With this Charter the world can begin to look forward to the time when all worthy human beings may be permitted to live decently as free people." (President Truman)

  23. United NationsCharter "If we fail to use it,we shall betray all those who have died so that we might meet here in freedom and safety to create it. If we seek to use it selfishly - for the advantage of any one nation or any small group of nations — we shall be equally guilty of that betrayal. "

  24. United NationsCharter(www.un.org/aboutun/charter) • Constituting instrument of the Organization • Rights and obligations of member states • UN organs and procedures

  25. Preamble • WE THE PEOPLES OF THE UNITED NATIONS DETERMINED to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,

  26. Preamble • AND FOR THESE ENDS to practicetoleranceand live togetherinpeacewith one another as goodneighbours, and to uniteourstrengthtomaintaininternationalpeaceandsecurity, andtoensure, bytheacceptanceofprinciplesandtheinstitutionofmethods, thatarmedforceshallnotbeused, save inthecommoninterest, and to employinternationalmachinery for thepromotionoftheeconomicandsocialadvancementof all peoples,

  27. Preamble • “HAVE RESOLVED TO COMBINE OUR EFFORTS TO ACCOMPLISH THESE AIMS. Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations.”

  28. Purposes of the UN • To maintaininternationalpeaceandsecurity • To developfriendlyrelationsamongnationsbased on respect for theprincipleofequalrightsandself-determinationofpeoples • To help nations work together to improve the lives of poor people, to conquer hunger, disease and illiteracy, and to encourage respect for human rights and fundamentalfreedoms; • To be a centre for harmonizingtheactionsofnationsinattainingthesecommonends

  29. UN Principles • It is based on the sovereign equality of all members • All members are to fulfil in good faith their Charter obligations • They are to settle their international disputes by peaceful means and without endangering international peace, security and justice

  30. UN Principles • Members are to refrain from the threat or use of force against any other state • They are to give the UN every assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the Charter • Nothing in the Charter is to authorize the UN to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state

  31. Membership • Open to all peace-loving nations which accept the obligations of the Charter • The General Assembly admits new member states on the recommendation of the Security Council • The Charter provides for the suspension or expulsion of a member for violation of the principles of the Charter (no such action has ever been taken)

  32. Official languages • Arabic • Chinese • English • French • Russian • Spanish

  33. Structure of the Organization • The General Assembly • The Security Council • The Economic and Social Council • The Trusteeship Council • The International Court of Justice • The Secretariat

  34. General Assembly(www.un.org/ga) • Representativesof all memberstates (193), eachofwhichhas one vote • Decisions on importantissues, e.g. peaceandsecurity, admissionof new members, budgetarymattersrequire a twothirdsmajority

  35. Security Council • Maintenance of international peace of security • 15 members: 5 permanent (China, France, the Russian Federation, the UK, the US); 10 members elected by the General Assembly for two-year terms

  36. Security Council • Decisions on procedural and substantive matters require 9 votes • Permanent members: power of veto • All members of the UN have are obliged to accept the decisions of the Security Council

  37. EconomicandSocialCouncil(www.un.org/esa/coordination/ecosoc) • Coordinates the economic, social and related work of the UN and the specialized agencies and institutions • 54 members, who serve for three-year terms

  38. International Court of Justice(www.icj-cij.org) • The principal judicial organ of the UN • Settles legal disputes between states • Gives advisory opinions to the UN • Open to all member states; not open to private persons and entities or international organizations

  39. Jurisdiction of the ICJ • Decides disputes by applying: • International conventions establishing rules recognized by the contesting states; • International custom as evidence of a general practice accepted as law; • The general principles of law recognized by nations • Judicial decisions and the teachings of the most qualified scholars of the various nations

  40. Membership of ICJ • 15 judges elected by the General Assembly and the Security Council, voting independently • Chosen on the basis of their qualifications; care is taken that principal legal systems of the world are represented

  41. Membership of ICJ • No two judges can be from the same country • Serve 9-year term and may be re-elected • They cannot engage in any other occupation during their term of office

  42. Secretariat(www.un.org/documents/st) • Secretary General – appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a five-year, renewable term • Administering peacekeeping operations, mediating international disputes, surveying economic and social trends, preparing studies on human rights and sustainable development

  43. Secretariat • Informs the world’s media about the work of the UN, organizes international conferences, translates documents into the official languages • Staff of 7,500 drawn from 170 countries • Headquarters: New York; main centres of activities: Geneva (disarmament, human rights), Vienna (crime prevention, international trade law, peaceful uses of outer space), Nairobi (environment, human settlements)

  44. Secretary-General(www.un.org/News/ossg/sg) • Symbol of UN ideals and a spokesman for the interests of the world’s peoples • Chief administrative officer of the UN • Brings to the attention of the Security Council any matter which may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security

  45. Secretary General • Consultations with world leaders, government officials, representatives of civil society groups, the private sector and others • Annual report on the work of the Organization

  46. The UN family of organizations • UN secretariat • UN funds and programmes (e.g. UNICEF) • Specialized agencies (e.g. UNESCO, WHO) • Related organizations (e.g. WTO)

  47. International tribunals • International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) • International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)

  48. International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY)(www.un.org/icty) • Created by the Security Council in 1994 • Mandate to prosecute persons responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law committed since 1991 • 16 permanent judges, 27 ad litem judges, staff of 1,238 from 84 countries

  49. Fill in the missing words: • Observance, rule, development, recognition, conscience, foundation, realization, freedom, standards, promotion

  50. Observance, rule, development, recognition, conscience, foundation, realization, freedom, standards, promotion • Whereas _____of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the _____ of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

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