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Unit Two/Ch. 16 AP European History Ms. Tully - UHS The Scientific Revolution
II. Advances in Medicine & Chemistry Focus Question What did Paracelsus, Vesalius, and Harvey contribute to a scientific view of medicine?
Dominance of Galen • 2nd C Greek physician • Theory of two different blood systems • Doctrine of four bodily humors: blood, yellow bile, phlegm, black bile
Paracelsus (1493-1541) • Swiss scientists – lone ranger in medicine • Rejected work of Aristotle & Galen • Macrocosm-Microcosm theory • Disease caused by chemical imbalances in specific organs • Disease treatment – “like cures like” • Father of modern medicine
Vesalius (1514-1564) • MD from University of Padua 1536 Professor of surgery • Emphasis on practical research to understand human body • On the Fabric of the Human Body, 1543
William Harvey (1578-1657) • MD from University of Padua in 1602 • On the Motion of the Heart and Blood, 1628 • Heart starting point for circulation, blood flows in veins & arteries
Chemistry • Robert Boyle (1626-1691) – matter is composed of atoms • Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) – system for naming chemical elements
III. Women in the Origins of Modern Science Focus Question: What role did women play in the Scientific Revolution?
Margaret Cavendish (1623-1673) • Prominent female scientist of 17th C • Excluded from Royal Society • Active & critical participant • Example of French or English woman in science
Maria Merian (1647-1717) • Tradition of female craft production scientific participation • Reputation as important entomologist in 18th C • 1699 Merian went to South America to study bugs
Maria Winkelmann (1670-1720) • Famous German female astronomer • Married Gottfried Kirch leading astronomer • Faced typical obstacles in career
Debate on the Nature of Women • Querelles des femmes – arguments about women • Medieval males opinions • Early modern female arguments women were rational, education beneficial • Science used to support old stereotypical views • Labor & birth transferred from midwives to men • Distribution of misogynistic/scientific literature perpetuated attitudes against women
IV. Descartes & Rationalism • Read Toward a New Earth: Descartes, Rationalism, and a New View of Humankind on p. 504-505 • What is Cartesian dualism, and what were its social implications? • Why is Descartes considered the “founder of modern rationalism”? • Read The Father of Modern Rationalism on p. 505 & answer the prompt at the end. • This will go directly into Section #3: Classwork/Homework !!
V. The Scientific Method & the Spread of Scientific Knowledge Focus Question: How were the ideas of the Scientific Revolution spread, and what impact did they have on society and religion?
Francis Bacon (1561-1626) • Scientific method built on inductive principles • Organized experiments, systematic observations Empiricism • Wanted to contribute to “mechanical arts”
Rene Descartes (1596-1650) • Emphasize deduction and mathematical logic Discourse on Method • Newton synthesized Bacon’s empiricism & Descartes’ rationalism into one method
Scientific Societies • English Royal Society – 1640s • French Academy of Sciences – 1650s • Both societies practical value of scientific research primary focus on mechanics & astronomy • German princes & cities sponsored small scale societies • Spread of scientific journals
Science and Society • How did science become such an integral part of Western culture in the 17th & 18th centuries? • Merchants & gentry attracted to science b/c it could exploit resources for profit • Political interests in scientific conception of natural world to create social stability • Leaders supported scientific revolution for military advancement
Science and Religion • Theology the final measure • Dichotomy between science & religion growing secularization • Benedict de Spinoza (1632-1677) • Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)