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Chapter 4 The health benefits of physical activity. Outline How could PA contribute to optimal health and wellness? Physical activity and cardiovascular diseases The Fit heart Physical activity and Atherosclerosis (heart attack) RPA and other causes of heart attack

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Chapter 4 The health benefits of physical activity


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    1. Chapter 4The health benefits of physical activity Outline • How could PA contribute to optimal health and wellness? • Physical activity and cardiovascular diseases • The Fit heart • Physical activity and Atherosclerosis (heart attack) • RPA and other causes of heart attack • RPA and hypertension (high blood pressure)

    2. RPA and stroke • RPA reduce the risk of some form of cancer • RPA can manage and treat type II diabetes (noninsulin-dependent) • RPA maintains bone density and decreases risk of osteoporosis • RPA can help in other chronic illnesses • PA and Aging • Risk factors

    3. Introduction • Accumulated evidence has shown The existence of health benefits of PA • Sedentary living is considered as the primary risk factor for heart disease. • Emphasize PA as one of the key healthy lifestyles contributing to optimal H, W and F

    4. 1.Physical activity and hypokinetic diseases? • Chronic diseases are associated with lifestyles or environmental factors. • Hypokinetic diseases are associated with lack of physical activity (they are considered to be chronic disease) and are : hearth attack, diabetes, stroke and cancer • back pain and obesity are hypokinetic conditions • Physical activity and fitness can preventand treat diseases (chronic) and are methods of health and wellness promotion • Hypokinetic disease can be reduced among people who do regular PA

    5. 1.Physical activity and hypokinetic diseases? • Much like immunization can control infectious diseases, PA may produce the shortcut for the control of CD • Active people increase their life expectancy by 2 years and have a low chance for early death • RPA may overcome the effects of inherited risk (twins) • Sedentary Death Syndrome (SeDS)

    6. 2.Physical activity and cardiovascular diseases • Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) are high blood pressure, stroke, peripheral vascular disease (PVD), congestive heart failure and CHD • Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) are disease of heart muscle and blood vessels (O2) inside the heart * Coronary occlusion (heart attack) * Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis increase risk of heart attack * Angina pectoris (symptom of poor circulation)

    7. 2.Physical activity and cardiovascular diseases • Men are more likely to suffer from heart disease than women • CHD accounts for 32% of deaths (USA) • 90% reduced risk of CHD for those in active occupation • Sedentary lifestyle is a risk factor comparable to high blood pressure, cholesterol, obesity and cigarette smoke

    8. 3. The Fit heart • RPA increases the pumping of the blood and oxygen • It results in a slower heart rate and greater heart efficiency • The fit heart has open arteries free of Atherosclerosis fig 2

    9. 3. The Fit heart • Normal resting heart is 72 bpm. 50-85 are not uncomment • People who do RPA have 30-40 bpm • Decrease in heart rate following a training is positive adaptation

    10. 4. Physical activity and Atherosclerosis (heart attack) • A heart attack occurs when a coronary artery is blocked fig 2 • Atherosclerosis is the buildup of deposit (cholesterol (saturated fat), fibrin(clotting process)) in arterial wall • Its implicated in heart attack, strocke, hypertension, angina pectoris and PVD

    11. 4. Physical activity and Atherosclerosis (heart attack) Blood lipids includs lipoproteins (LDLand HDL), phospholipids, triglycerides and cholesterol

    12. 4. Physical activity and Atherosclerosis (heart attack) Lipid Deposit Theory: • * RPA can reduce the deposit of blood lipid by diminishing blood lipid levels including the concentration of LDL • * physical activity is often prescribed as part of treatment for high triglyceride levels Protective Protein Theory : • * People who do PA have a higher HDL levels • * Protective Protein (HDL) picks up and carries cholesterol (HDL-C) to the liver, where it is eliminated by the body • Other Theory: • * Blood coagulant theory: RPA can reduce fibrin in the blood

    13. 5. RPA and other causes of heart attack Improvment of corronary circulation • People who perform RPA have half the risk of heart attack • The active person has more profuse distribution of arteries fig 5 • Physical activity may promote the growth of extra blood vessels (coronary collateral circulation)

    14. Resistance to stress: high heart rate, blood pressure and excessive stimulation • RPA leads to the dominance of parasympathetic nervous system • RPA decreases sympathetic dominance • RPA helps the heart rate to return to normal rate faster after after emotional storm • RPA strengthens the heart muscle • PA reduces hormonal effects • PA reduces the risk of sudden death RPA is an effective means of rehabilitation for people with coronary diseases

    15. 6. RPA and hypertension (high blood pressure) Table 2 It can be raised with stress and high-salt diet RPA is one effective method of reducing blood pressure by reducing the resistance to blood flow (dilatation of BV) RPA enhance the dilation of blood vessels

    16. 7.RPA and stroke • People with high blood pressure and atherosclerosis are susceptible to stroke • RPA are helpful in the prevention of stroke

    17. 8.RPA reduce the risk of some form of cancer • Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by an uncontrollable growth and spread of abnormal cells table 3 • Theory: a hormonal link between PA and breast cancer • Theory: the faster transit time for both colon and rectal cancer • Theory: Rectal cancer is associated with inactivity • 1/3 reduction-risk of breast cancers among active people • 50 to 250% of inactive people are having greater risk of getting colon cancer

    18. 9. RPA can manage and treat type II diabetes(noninsulin-dependent) • Diabetes results when there is too much sugar in the blood • PA is not an effective treatment for type I(insulin-dependent) • RPA can help reduce: * Body fatness * Decrease insulin resistance * Improve insulin sensitivity * Improve the body’s ability to clear the sugar From the blood

    19. 10. RPA maintains bone density and decreases risk of osteoporosis • Excessive bed and setting rest lead to calcium lose osteoporosis (porous and fragile) • Bones are strengthened by bearing weight and the pulling of active muscles • RPA can help in: *increases your peak bone mass(early life) *maintains bone density over the lifespan * See guidelines page 58

    20. 11. RPA and obesity • Obesity is not a disease but a hypokinetic condition • High fatness, combined with high blood fat, sugar, pressure, and insulin resistance is associated with risk for heart diseases • RPA and sound nutrition lower the body fat

    21. 12. RPA and back pain • It’s a result of poor muscle strength, endurance and flexibility • Increased by poor posture, improper lifting and work habits, heredity, scoliosis and arthritis

    22. 13. RPA can help in mental disorder • reducing the risk of mental diseases • - PA combined with other therapy can be effective for some depression • - Anxiety can be reduced with RPA • - Insomnia (not vigorous and just before going to bed) • - Improvement in fitness and appearance can improve self-confidence and self-esteem

    23. 14. PA can help ther immune system fight illness • Infections: PA can enhance quality of life for people with HIV avoid heavy PA when you are ill (colds, flu)

    24. 15. PA and Aging • The inability to function effectively as you grow older is associated with lack of fitness and inactive lifestyles • Acquired aging/time dependent aging • The amount of PA performed must be adapted as people grow older • PA enhace cognitive fuctioning and perhaps reduce risk for dementia • RPA can compress illness into a shorter period of life (76.1, 12 years)

    25. 16. RPA and non-hypokinetic conditions • Arthritis (infection of joints) choose appropriate PA • Asthma : choose appropriate PA but not in cold weather • Chronic pain: aerobic activity and resistance training • Premenstrual syndrom • PA may decrease impotence

    26. Health, Fitness and Wellness promotion • PA enhances metabolic fitness that can reduce risk of a variety of hypokinetic diseases (healthy blood fat, blood sugar, blood pressure and insulin level) table 4 • Good health-related fitness can help you feel good, look good, and enjoy life (table 3) • Enjoying your leisure may not add years to your life, but can add life to your years. • PA can help you to work productively and have energy left over at the end of the day • There are many economic benefits associated with employee physical activity

    27. Hypokinetic diseases risk factors *Positive lifestyle can reduce the risk of diseases (table 5) * Too much PA can lead to hyperkinetic diseases: overuse injury to muscles, bone… * Reducing risk alters the probability of diseases, but does not assure disease immunity