Physical Activity & Health. Introduction to Wellness, Fitness, and Lifestyle Management Chapter 1. CHOICES. Do the choices we make really impact our health and well-being? Consequences of our choices. What foods do you choose to eat? How much sleep do you choose to get?
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Physical Activity &Health Introduction to Wellness, Fitness, and Lifestyle Management Chapter 1
CHOICES • Do the choices we make really impact our health and well-being? • Consequences of our choices. What foods do you choose to eat? How much sleep do you choose to get? How much physical activity do you engage in? How much time do you choose to study? We all have choices. What we do today, impacts tomorrow!
Leading Causes of Death – Then and Now • 1900’s – Average Life Expectancy in U.S. was 47 years old. • Causes of death – Acute diseases that were infectious, such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, influenza, diphtheria, polio, and kidney diseases. • TODAY – Average life expectancy is 77.9 years old. • Causes of death – Chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, cancer, strokes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, emphysema, and cirrhosis of the liver. THESE ARE DISEASES RELATED TO LIFESTYLE BEHAVIORS! CHOICES WE MAKE!
What Has Changed? • Decrease in physical activity. • 55% of U.S. adults do not engage in the recommended amounts of physical activity. • 25% of Americans are not active at all • Increase in food consumption and portion sizes. • 2004 Study by Centers for Disease Control – Women have increased daily caloric intake by 22% -1542 calories to 1877 calories. (1971-2000) • Men have increased their intake by 7%, from 2450 calories to 2618 calories, per day. • Technology • Advancements in medicine
Adults ~ Drive to work. ~ Sit at computer. ~ Drive home. ~ Watch TV. Children ~ Surf the Internet. ~ Video games. ~ Motorized toys. ~ Watch TV. Today’s Lifestyle
FACTS • 64% of American adults are overweight or obese. • 15% of adolescents, ages 12-19, are overweight. • 15% of children, ages 6-11, are overweight. • Health care expenditures have increased dramatically. • 1950, U.S. Health care costs were $12 billion. • 2002, U.S. Health care costs were $1.6 trillion. • U.S. spends more per person (about $5,317 in 2005) than any other industrialized nation. • For Americans, approximately the last 11 years of life are spent impaired.
Leading Causes of Death Click on this link: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr54/nvsr54_19.pdf Look at Table B on page 4 for leading causes of death. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (June 28, 2006). Deaths: Preliminary data for 2004. National Vital Statistics Report, 54(19). Retrieved June 12, 2007, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr54/nvsr54_19.pdf Comparison of health care expenditures of selected countries Click on Table 118 at this website. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus05.pdf#executivesummary Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005). Health: United States, 2005. Retrieved June 12, 2007, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus05.pdf#executivesummary Obesity trend maps: Go to this link and view the ppt presentation http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/trend/maps Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. (2007). Obesity trend maps. Retrieved June 12, 2007, from http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/trend/maps/
Cigarette smoking = increased risk of lung cancer Lifestyle and Wellness Choices! • More time watching TV = increased risk of obesity and diabetes • Low intake of fruits • and vegetables = • increased risk of heart disease
WELLNESS • High level wellness is a dynamic approach to health enhancement that emphasizes positive health behaviors and preventive practices. • It is an ongoing process. A way of life. • Wellness is composed of interrelated dimensions: • Each contributes to the overall quality of one’s life but none operates in isolation.
Components of Wellness • Emotional – Feelings, positive self-concept, optimism, trust, determination, dedication, persistence. Being emotionally healthy is handling life’s unexpected challenges and problems effectively. Negative emotions can affect the immune system. • Mental – Thoughts, sense of humor, ability to think critically, creativity, curiosity, openness to new ideas. The mind has a substantial influence over the body. • Social – Meaningful relationships, network of friends and family, friendly, compassionate, supportive, good listener. Socially healthy people can interact well with others. • Spiritual – Set of beliefs, principles, values that give meaning or purpose to life, faith in something beyond oneself. Spiritual health helps to achieve a sense of inner peace, confidence. • Physical – Cardiovascular health, body composition, strength, flexibility, endurance. Most often associated with physical health. • Occupational – Having a career or job that is satisfying, enjoyable. • Environmental – Safe surroundings, protection from noise, air, and water pollution, landfills.
Wellness involves optimal development of these seven different areas. • From this description, it is clear that the quality of one’s health and the quest for total well-being is primarily the responsibility of the individual • NOT the responsibility of physicians, conventional medical care and delivery system, the government, or society.
BEHAVIOR CHANGE PLAN • Ability to change unhealthy behaviors comes from within. • Education and life’s experiences can assist us in the process to change. • Increase your awareness of the risks with certain behaviors, i.e. smoking, inappropriate use of drugs, alcohol, lack of attention to dietary needs, unsafe habits. LOCUS OF CONTROL The figurative “place” a person designates as the source of responsibility for the events in his or her life. Internal – A belief that you can make a difference and can control or positively influence your state of health and fitness. External – A belief that factors beyond your control are impacting and controlling your life. Heredity, family history, environment, fate, luck, friends, family.
MAKING THE CHANGE • CHOOSE A Problem Behavior • LEARN Your Actions and Behaviors • ESTABLISH Personal Goals and Objectives • PREPARE a Plan of Action • IMPLEMENT Your Plan • REVALUATE and Modify Your Plan
Tip of the Day! Change develops one step at a time! Make a commitment today to your total well being!