Warm-Up 12/16/13 • Teach the Teacher: Tell me about a time you felt out of place. • Review: Which group has full outer orbitals?
Flash Card • On the front write: • Luster • On the back write: • Shininess
Flash Card • On the front write: • Malleable • On the back write: • Ability to be hammered and re-shaped
Metals: major part of the group • Most elements are metals. • 88 elements found to the LEFT of the Zigzag Line
Physical Properties Of Metals • Luster (shininess) • Good conductors of heat and electricity • High density (heavy for their size) • High melting point • Ductile (drawn out into thin wires) • Malleable (hammered into thin sheets)
Chemical Properties of Metals • Easily lose electrons (become positive ions CATIONS) • Corrode easily • React easily with other elements
ALKALI METALS – GROUP 1, 1A & IA • Soft metals – they can be cut with a knife • Most reactive of all the metals - React rapidly with oxygen and water • Do not occur in nature in their elemental form • Stored under oil • Will form a +1 ion by giving away their one valence electron
Alkaline Earth Metals Group 2 2A & IIA • Do not occur in nature in their elemental form • Will form a +2 ion by giving away their two valence electrons • Uses • Fireworks • Ca – Bones & Teeth • Ba - X-Rays
Transition Elements Group 3-12 • These elements are most familiar to the public because they are found in nature in their elemental form • Often form colored compounds • Chromium precious gems (emeralds and rubies) • Cadmium yellow • Cobalt blue
INNER Transition Metals: Lanthanides and Actinides • Lanthanides • Elements 58 – 71 • Elements used in motion pictures industry • Produce colors you see on the TV
Actinides • Elements 90 – 103 • All actinides are radioactive and unstable • Thorium and Uranium are found in the earth’s crust • Uranium – nuclear reactors
NONMETALS • Found to the RIGHT of the zigzag line • Hydrogen is considered a nonmetal • Group 18 – Noble Gasses are the only group that consists of all nonmetals • Group 17 - Halogens
Non-metals cont. • Properties • Nonmetals gain electrons to become stable – anions • Most are gasses at room temp • Not malleable • Not ductile • Poor conductors of heat and electricity • No Luster – Dull • Important nonmetals in Humans • Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen & Oxygen
Metalloids & Synthetic Elements • Metalloids conduct electricity better than nonmetals, but not as well as metals. • Synthetic elements do not occur naturally (they are man-made) • All elements with an atomic number higher than uranium (92) were made by scientists and most are radioactive.
Warm-up 12/17/13 • Teach the Teacher: What are some magazines you like to read/check out? • Review: What kind of ion is positive?
Flash Cards • On the Front Write : • Subscript • On the Back Write: • Number below letters (submarine) tell you the number of atoms in a compound
Flash Card • On one side: • Superscript • On the other side: • Numbers written above the letters (superman) • Na2+
Mapping the PT • Outline with a different colored marker for each one: Alkali metals-group 1 Alkali earth metals-group 2 Transition metals – group 3-12 Noble Gases- group 18 Lanthanides- labeled Actinides – labeled
Element Bonding Puzzle Card • 1. Besides shape and color, what else do all the white pieces have in common? • 2. Besides shape and color, what do all the yellow pieces have in common? • 3. Build 2 rectangles using these rules: • must use both white and yellow pieces • No more then two different elements • Write down the name of what you build • 4.What is the total charge of each rectangle (combine both charges)
Electron Dot Diagrams of Selected Elements • Electron Dot uses the symbol of the element and dots to illustrate the number of electrons in the outermost energy level • Elements of the same group (column) have the same number of valence electrons
The Story of Bending the Rules • Normal atom= • # Protons= # electrons • Then it’s a neutral atom • *Remember that all atoms want to have orbital shells be full • Full shells= • 1storbital: 2 electrons • 2nd orbital: 8 electrons
Trying to Get Full • Example: Sodium (Na) has 11 electrons • (Draw lewis dot diagram here) • Wants to get rid of 1 valence electron to be full • Chlorine has 7 valence electrons • (Draw lewis dot diagram here)
Not Your Normal Atom • Na now has 10 electrons • So does Ne, but Ne has 10 protons and Na still has 11 protons • But not normal Na atom • Now Na is Na+ • An ion • Now orbitals are full and atom is electrically charged • AND ATTRACTIVE to other elements like Cl
Ions • atom or molecule with missing or extra electrons • Ions are charged particles (positive or negative) • charge = #protons - #electrons • charge given as a trailing superscript • positive ions are cationsX+ • negative ions are anionsX–
Metals= + cations • Non metals= - anions
Warm-up 12/18/13 • Teach the teacher questions: If you could start a band what kind of band would you start, what would you call it, and what part would have in it (play guitar, sing, ect.). • Review: What are some characteristics of metals?
Warm-up 12/19/13 • Teach the Sub: What are some holiday traditions you have during the holidays. • Review: The 2 in H2O is that a subscript or a superscript?
Warm-up 12/20/13 • Teach the Teacher: Take a vote, would you rather be an elf or a reindeer? Why? • Review: Describe the Bohr Model.
Warm-up 1/2/14 • Teach the Teacher: What was the best part about the break? • Review: Tell me as many things as you can about me (ms. Uhre)
Flash Card • On one side: • Ionic Bond • On the other side: • A bond formed by attraction of a cation (+) and an anion (-)
Chem Idol round 4 • Alkaline Earth Metals by Dan Daly • Alkali Metals Parody by Zach and Company • The Bonding Song By Shigotawang
Dice It: • Anything in this room
Dice It • Element symbols that are non-metals
Dice It • The # number/mass of protons and neutrons
Dice It: • Element names that have 2,4,or 6 valence electrons
Dice It: • Elements that are anions
Dice It: • Elements that are cations
Dice It • Elements that have a ionic charge of +1, -1, 0
Dice It: • Elements that take in electrons
Warm-up 1/3/14 • Teach the Teacher: What is the best New Year’s resolution you have/have heard of? • Review: An isotope is an atom with a different number of what? (Pull out PT and check this….)
Chemical Bonds Bonding isn’t just for people.
Why do atoms form compounds? • TO BECOME STABLE!! • What does stable mean to an atom? • Full set of valence electrons • Atoms want to have the electron configuration of a noble gas • Atoms will gain, lose or share electrons in order to obtain a full set of valence electrons
→ Combining Elements • The chemical & physical properties of the elements are different than the properties of the compound they make up • Na + Cl2→ NaCl • Reaction of Sodium with Chlorine & Hydrogen with Oxygen
Types of Bonds • Ionic Bonds • Contain a metal & a nonmetal (at least 1 of each) • Electrons are gained or lost • Ex. Salt, NaCl • Covalent Bonds • Contain 2 or more nonmetals or hydrogen • Electrons are shared • Ex. Water, H2O
Ionic Bonding • In an ionic bond, one atoms gives electrons to another atom. • When atoms combine this way, it is called a formula unit. • Ex. NaCl is a formula unit • The charge of a formula unit is always 0. • The positive and negative charges must always balance each other.
Warm-up 12/13/12 • Teach the Teacher: What is the best school lunch? • Review: Finish this sentence: All ________ are cations.