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Psychology: PowerPoint Presentation
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Psychology:

Psychology:

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Psychology:

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  1. Psychology: A journey through perspectives

  2. What is psychology?

  3. What is psychology?

  4. Psychology Defined • The science of behavior and mental processes • Behavior - observable actions of a person • Mental processes - thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions, memories, dreams, motives and other subjective experiences • Science • An objective way to answer questions • Based on observable facts / data and well described methods

  5. Psychology vs. Psychobabble • Valid psychological claims provide evidence in the form of scientific research • “Pop” psychology is often focused on WANTS • influence of the media

  6. Characteristics of pseudoscience • associates itself with true science • relies on/accepts anecdotal evidence • can’t be disproved • reduces complexity to simplicity (esp. to consumers)

  7. The Limits of Common Sense • Common sense and intuition often tell us about psychology • can be inconsistent and based on hindsight

  8. 7 Guidelines for any claim: • Define terms. • Support with evidence. • Analyze assumptions and biases. • Avoid emotional reasoning. • Don’t oversimplify. • Consider other interpretations. • Tolerate uncertainty.

  9. Great Questions of Psychology • Nature vs. Nurture • Monism vs. Dualism: the mind/body problem • Commonalities vs. Individual Differences • MEANING…

  10. Ancient Greece • Plato: • Nativism = humans enter the world with knowledge present • Rationalism = reasoning and logic give access to this knowledge • Aristotle: • Empiricism = senses are sources of knowledge

  11. Renaissance • Rene Descartes • First modern rationalist • Used reasoning to prove he existed! • Mind/body problem

  12. Renaissance • John Locke • Sided with Aristotle: tabula rasa • Immanuel Kant • Nature AND Nurture?

  13. Advent of Science • Studies of Nervous System • Darwin’s evolutionary theory

  14. Psychology as Science • Willhelm Wundt- 1st experimental psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany, 1879 • Different approaches emerged based on • Object of study • Goals • Methods

  15. Different Schools Emerge • Titchener: Structuralism • analytic introspection to understand What? • e.g. there are 4 basic tastes • James: Functionalism • to understand how behavior is affected, and Why? • e.g. why might we spit out something that is bitter? • applied research

  16. Schools (Perspectives) of Psychology • Psychoanalysis (or Psychodynamic perspective) • Originated with Sigmund Freud • concerned with unconscious conflicts • Behaviorism (or Learning perspective) • John Watson (1913) • B. F. Skinner – ‘Baby in a Box’ (1945)

  17. Other schools • Humanist/Existentialist approach • Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Viktor Frankl • person-centered, free will • Cognitive approach • how the mind processes information • e.g. memory, thinking, reasoning

  18. Other schools • Biological approach • brain, nervous system functions • genes and heredity • Sociocultural approach • group dynamics • social and cultural impacts on behavior

  19. The Profession of Psychology • American Psychological Association has 53 divisions in 2006 • areas of training and specialization (e.g., developmental, clinical) • applied (i.e., teaching in psychology, psychology and the law)

  20. Areas of Specialization • Clinical • abnormal behavior and psychological disorders • psychologist vs. psychiatrist • Counseling • dealing with normal life situations • provide guidance • Health psychology • psychological factors in physical health

  21. Areas of Specialization • Developmental • psychological change over the life span • social, cognitive, personality • School • counseling and guidance in school settings • Educational • learning and teaching

  22. Areas of Specialization • Physiological • brain and behavior • often uses animals as research model • Cognitive • experimental methods • human memory, perception, etc.

  23. Areas of Specialization • Social • social influences on cognition and emotion-importance of situation • attitudes and beliefs • Personality • individual differences • Industrial/organizational • people and work • job satisfaction • training and selection

  24. Professional Work Settings Employment Settings of Psychologists Business & Industry Private Practice Schools Universities & Colleges Government • Colleges and universities (33%) • Clinical settings (32%) • Government (18%) • Business (12%) • Elementary and secondary schools (5%)