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Development of Multicultural Competence in School Psychology Graduate Students. Celeste M. Malone, MS, MEd James E. Connell & Catherine Fiorello Temple University. Overview of Presentation. Multicultural Competence in Professional Psychology Review of Previous Research Current Study

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development of multicultural competence in school psychology graduate students

Development of Multicultural Competence in School Psychology Graduate Students

Celeste M. Malone, MS, MEd

James E. Connell &

Catherine Fiorello

Temple University

overview of presentation
Overview of Presentation
  • Multicultural Competence in Professional Psychology
  • Review of Previous Research
  • Current Study
  • Future Directions
multicultural competence in professional psychology
Multicultural Competence in Professional Psychology
  • A major goal of professional psychology (i.e. clinical, counseling, and school) training programs is to prepare trainees to:
    • understand and appreciate diversity
    • demonstrate sensitivity to diverse populations
multicultural competence in professional psychology4
Multicultural Competence in Professional Psychology
  • Multicultural competence - a psychologist’s ability to work effectively with diverse populations
    • Use multicultural knowledge to engage in behavior and skills that reflect awareness and sensitivity to multicultural issues
    • The characteristics and skills of the psychologist which make that possible
multicultural competence in professional psychology5
Multicultural Competence in Professional Psychology
  • The United States is becoming more racially, ethnically, and linguistically diverse
  • The field of school psychology is predominantly White
    • modest gains in minority recruitment and enrollment,
    • But parity will not be soon
  • A school psychologist who is multiculturally competent may be better equipped to address issues within school systems that impact minority children
multicultural counseling competencies
Multicultural Counseling Competencies
  • In the absence of multicultural competencies in clinical and school psychology, the multicultural counseling competencies provide a framework to assess multicultural competence
    • Domain One: Counselor awareness of own cultural values and biases (Awareness)
    • Domain Two: Counselor awareness of client’s worldview (Knowledge)
    • Domain Three: Culturally appropriate intervention strategies (Skills)

(Sue, Arrendondo, & McDavis, 1992)

multicultural counseling competencies7
Multicultural Counseling Competencies
  • A culturally competent counselor/professional
    • Is becoming aware of his/her assumptions about human behavior, values, biases, preconceived notions, personal limitations, etc. (Awareness)
    • understands the worldview of his/her culturally different client by seeking to understand what the client’s values and assumptions are (Knowledge)
    • Is developing and practicing appropriate, relevant, and sensitive intervention strategies and skills in working with a culturally diverse client. (Skills)

(Sue, Arredondo, & Davis, 1992)

nasp s commitment to multicultural competence
NASP’s Commitment to Multicultural Competence
  • The domains of multicultural competence are addressed in NASP’s guiding documents
    • NASP Training Standards
    • Principles for Professional Ethics
    • Guidelines for the Provision of School Psychological Services
  • These documents address both the training and practice of school psychology
multicultural training in school psychology
Multicultural Training in School Psychology
  • Programs create their own model to address multicultural issues and develop multicultural competence in their students
    • Specific diversity issues or multicultural psychology course(s)
    • Multicultural content infused throughout the curriculum (without explicit multicultural coursework)
    • Exposure to diverse clientele during practicum and/or internship
    • Second language requirement

(Rogers et al., 1992; Rogers, Hoffman, & Wade, 1998; Rogers, 2006)

multicultural training in school psychology10
Multicultural Training in School Psychology
  • Programs choose how they evaluate students’ multicultural competence, e.g.,
    • assignments (e.g. portfolios, report writing, papers)
    • multicultural questions on comprehensives
    • student proficiency in learning a second language
    • integrating multicultural themes in theses and dissertations
    • assessing competency during field placement

(Rogers et al., 1992; Rogers, Hoffman, & Wade, 1998; Rogers, 2006)

review of previous research tomlinson clarke 2000
Review of Previous Research – Tomlinson-Clarke (2000)
  • Qualitative study examining counselor training outcomes in a multicultural counseling course
    • The training program reportedly infused multicultural content in all didactic and experiential courses and practicum
  • Assessment instruments
    • Multicultural Competency Checklist (MCC)
    • Student self-report
    • Four month follow-up interviews with students
review of previous research tomlinson clarke 200012
Review of Previous Research – Tomlinson-Clarke (2000)
  • Results
    • Program met 16 out of 22 multicultural competencies
  • Written evaluations
    • Students perceived the racial/ethnic diversity of the class as a strength
    • Course helped to broaden future interests in research and practice of multiculturalism
    • Students expressed the need for additional coursework
    • Perceived the texts and readings as helpful
    • Important to have a safe learning environment when discussing issues of multiculturalism
review of previous research tomlinson clarke 200013
Review of Previous Research – Tomlinson-Clarke (2000)
  • Follow-up interviews
    • Goal of the interviews was to determine if multicultural training was integrated into perceptions of self in professional and personal development
    • Response trends
      • Multicultural counseling training was helpful in providing information about different cultures
      • Diverse racial-ethnic composition of the class was the most helpful in learning and understanding culture
      • Multicultural knowledge was useful and transferable to developing culturally sensitive interventions
      • Need for a course with an emphasis on cultural self-development
multicultural awareness knowledge and skills survey makss
Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills Survey (MAKSS)
  • Developed by D’Andrea, Daniels, and Heck (1991)
  • Designed to measure an individual’s multicultural counseling awareness, knowledge, and skills
  • Based upon the areas of emphasis in the training formats of multicultural counseling courses
    • Acquisition of cross-cultural communication skills
    • Need to become more aware of one’s attitudes towards ethnic minorities
    • Importance of increasing counselors’ knowledge about minority populations
multicultural awareness knowledge and skills survey makss15
Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills Survey (MAKSS)
  • 60 item survey divided into three subscales
    • Items #1-20 – multicultural counseling awareness
    • Items #21-40 – multicultural counseling knowledge
    • Items #41-60 – multicultural counseling skills
  • Four responses available for each item
    • 1 – Very Limited or Strongly Disagree
    • 2 – Limited or Disagree
    • 3 – Good or Agree
    • 4 – Very Good or Strongly Agree
multicultural awareness knowledge and skills survey makss16
Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills Survey (MAKSS)
  • Awareness
    • At this time in your life, how would you rate yourself in understanding how your cultural background has influenced the way you think and act?
    • Ambiguity and stress often result from multicultural situations because people are not sure what to expect from each other.
  • Knowledge
    • Most of the immigrant and ethnic groups in Europe, Australia, and Canada face problems similar to those experienced by ethnic minority groups in the United States.
    • Racial and ethnic persons are under-represented in clinical and counseling psychology.
  • Skills
    • How would you rate your ability to conduct a successful counseling interview with a person from a cultural background significantly different from your own?
    • How well would you rate your ability to accurately identify culturally based assumptions as they relate to your professional training?
review of previous research keim warring rau 2001
Review of Previous Research – Keim, Warring, & Rau (2001)
  • Study examined whether elements of multicultural courses result in positive changes in awareness, knowledge, and skills for those being trained to address diverse student populations
  • Objectives of the multicultural training course included
    • Understanding the contributions and lifestyles of various racial, cultural, and economic groups in our society (Knowledge domain)
    • Recognizing and addressing dehumanizing biases, prejudices, and discrimination (Awareness domain)
    • Respecting human diversity and personal rights (Awareness domain)
    • Developing multicultural, gender fair, disability sensitive, inclusive approaches (Skills domain)
review of previous research keim warring rau 200118
Review of Previous Research – Keim, Warring, & Rau (2001)
  • Used a revised version of the MAKSS
    • The word “counselor” was replaced with the word “teacher”
    • Administered at three points in the semester
  • Found significant increases in multicultural awareness, knowledge, and skills
    • Awareness  Pre – Mid and Pre – Post scores indicated significant changes
    • Knowledge  Significant changes at each time point
    • Skills  Pre – Post and Mid – Post scores indicated significant changes
review of previous research keim warring rau 200119
Review of Previous Research – Keim, Warring, & Rau (2001)
  • Research provides information regarding the sequencing during a multicultural course
    • The beginning of a multicultural course should be dedicated to developing multicultural awareness
    • Multicultural skill development may be unlikely without multicultural awareness and knowledge
  • One course is insufficient to provide all the necessary information
    • However, it can provide the groundwork for additional multicultural training
review of previous research cartwright daniels zhang 2008
Review of Previous Research – Cartwright, Daniels, & Zhang (2008)
  • Two hypotheses around the evaluation of multicultural competence of graduate students
    • Self-reported multicultural counseling competence scores will be higher than observed multicultural competence
    • Observable growth in students’ multicultural competence by the end of the semester
  • Assessment instruments
    • MAKSS-CE-R
    • Multicultural Counseling Assessment Survey, Form I (MCAS)
  • Participants were counseling psychology graduate students enrolled in a program in which multicultural content was infused in all graduate coursework without an explicit multicultural counseling course
review of previous research cartwright daniels zhang 200821
Review of Previous Research – Cartwright, Daniels, & Zhang (2008)
  • Found a significant difference between self-report scores and independent observer ratings, self-report scores being higher for all students who responded
  • Found a small, insignificant increase in independent observer ratings from pretest to posttest,
  • May be too ambitious to expect that students will experience significant improvement in multicultural competence over the course of one semester
  • The slight growth in multicultural competence may indicate that the training participants received may have stimulated some positive changes in the participants’ overall level of multicultural competence
present study
Present Study
  • An evaluation in which the MAKSS was used to measure the multicultural competence of school psychology graduate students and to assess their growth in the three MAKSS domains (awareness, knowledge, and skills)
  • Participants included first year, second year, and advanced EdS and doctoral students from an APA accredited, NASP approved school psychology program
    • The program reportedly infuses multicultural content in related coursework, practicum, and field experiences, and does not have a dedicated multicultural psychology course
present study23
Present Study
  • Courses and practicum experiences with infused multicultural content:
    • Advanced Cognitive Assessment
    • Assessment of Personality and Behavior
    • School Consultation
    • Psychotherapeutic Strategies
    • Academic Assessment and Intervention
    • Low Incidence Clinic
    • Psychoeducational Clinic
present study24
Present Study
  • Longitudinal design
    • Cohort A – Second Year Students – Administered the MAKSS in January 2009, May 2009, and January 2010
    • Cohort B – First Year Students – Administered the MAKSS in September 2009 and January 2010
  • Advanced graduate students also completed the MAKSS to provide a comparative evaluation of anticipated growth
  • Average scores in the domains of awareness, knowledge, and skills were calculated for each group at each data collection point
present study participants
Present Study – Participants
  • Cohort A
    • 10 students
      • 6 PhD students; 4 EdS students
      • 8 female; 2 male
      • 4 self identified as members of ethnic minority groups
  • Cohort B
    • 8 students
      • 4 PhD students; 4 EdS students
      • All female
      • All self identified as White
  • Advanced Graduate Students
    • 5 students
present study hypothesis
Present Study – Hypothesis
  • Cohorts A and B will experience growth in each domain at each data collection point
    • However, because the multicultural content is infused throughout the curriculum (primarily skills based coursework) without an explicit multicultural psychology course, the greatest student growth is expected in the Skills domain as opposed to the Awareness and Knowledge domains
discussion
Discussion
  • The results obtained are consistent with the findings of previous research
    • Slight, but not significant, growth in the MAKSS domains over the course of the semester
      • Greatest growth in the Skills domain, followed by Knowledge domain
      • Reflects the difficulty in developing multicultural awareness especially without explicit coursework in that area
    • Cohort A was a more culturally diverse group than Cohort B  Fosters development of and insight into issues of multiculturalism
limitations
Limitations
  • Small sample size
    • Followed two small cohorts of students
  • Inappropriate or inadequate assessment instrument
    • MAKSS was developed for counseling psychologists  does not address all domains of school psychology practice
future directions
Future Directions
  • Development of an assessment tool to evaluate multicultural competence in school psychologists
    • Two studies (Lopez & Rogers, 2001; Rogers & Lopez, 2002) identified multicultural competencies in school psychology
    • This information can be used as a starting point for the development of an assessment instrument unique to school psychology
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of multicultural competence training models
    • Infused content vs. Specific coursework
    • Which elements are essential to the development of multicultural competence?
references
References

Cartwright, B.Y., Daniels, J., & Zhang, S. (2008). Assessing multicultural competence: Perceived versus demonstrated performance. Journal of Counseling and Development, 86, 318-322.

D’Andrea, M., Daniels, J., & Heck, R. (1991). Evaluating the impact of multicultural counseling training. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70, 143-150.

Keim, J., Warring, D.F., & Rau, R. (2001). Impact of multicultural training on school psychology and education students. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 28, 249-252.

Lopez, E.C. & Rogers, M.R. (2001). Conceptualizing cross-cultural school psychology competencies. School Psychology Quarterly, 16, 270-302.

National Association of School Psychologists. (2000a). Professional Conduct Manual. Bethesda, MD: Author.

National Association of School Psychologists. (2000b). Standards for Training and Field Placement Programs in School Psychology. Bethesda, MD: Author.

references34
References

Rogers, M.R. (2006). Exemplary multicultural training in school psychology programs. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 12, 115-133.

Rogers, M.R., Hoffman, M.A., & Wade, J. (1998). Notable multicultural training in APA-approved counseling psychology and school psychology programs. Cultural Diversity and Mental Health, 4, 212-226.

Rogers, M.R. & Lopez, E.C. (2002). Identifying critical cross-cultural school psychology competencies. Journal of School Psychology, 40, 115-141.

Rogers, M.R., Ponterorro, J.G., Conoley, J.C., & Wiese, M.J. (1992). Multicultural training in school psychology: A national survey. School Psychology Review, 21, 603-616.

Sue, D., Arrendondo, P., & McDavis, R. (1992). Multicultural counseling competencies and standards: A call to the profession. Journal of Counseling and Development, 20, 64-88.

Tomlinson-Clarke, S. (2000). Assessing outcomes in a multicultural training course: A qualitative study. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 13, 221-231.

contact information
Contact Information

Celeste Malone, MS, MEd

cmalone@temple.edu

James Connell, PhD, NCSP

jconnell@temple.edu