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Step Up To: Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D. From Myers, Psychology 8e Worth Publishers. Chapter 9: Memory. Fetch!. Can’t Remember?. Retain. Process. Real or Imagined?. Process. 500. 400. 300. 200. 100. retain. 500. 400. 300. 200. 100. Fetch!. 500. 400. 300. 200.

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step up to psychology by john j schulte psy d

Step Up To: Psychologyby John J. Schulte, Psy.D.

From Myers,

Psychology 8e

Worth Publishers

chapter 9 memory
Chapter 9: Memory

Fetch!

Can’t Remember?

Retain

Process

Real or Imagined?

slide3

Process

500

400

300

200

100

slide4

retain

500

400

300

200

100

slide5

Fetch!

500

400

300

200

100

slide6

Can’t remember?

500

400

300

200

100

slide7

Real or imagined?

500

400

300

200

100

1 the process of getting information into memory is called
1. The process of getting information into memory is called:
  • A) priming.
  • B) chunking.
  • C) encoding.
  • D) storage.
2 encoding that occurs with no effort or a minimal level of conscious attention is known as
2. Encoding that occurs with no effort or a minimal level of conscious attention is known as:
  • A) repression.
  • B) long-term potentiation.
  • C) automatic processing.
  • D) state-dependent memory.
3 the process by which information is encoded by its meaning is called
3. The process by which information is encoded by its meaning is called:
  • A) long-term potentiation.
  • B) semantic encoding.
  • C) priming.
  • D) automatic processing.
4 the organization of information into meaningful units is called
4. The organization of information into meaningful units is called:
  • A) automatic processing.
  • B) chunking.
  • C) the spacing effect.
  • D) the method of loci.
slide12

Timmy learns the sentence, “George eats old gray rats and paints houses yellow” to help him remember how to spell “geography.” He is using:

  • A) a mnemonic device.
  • B) the “peg-word” system.
  • C) the spacing effect.
  • D) the method of loci.
6 our immediate short term memory for new material is limited to roughly bits of information
6. Our immediate short-term memory for new material is limited to roughly ___ bits of information.
  • A) 3
  • B) 7
  • C) 12
  • D) 20
7 conscious memory of factual information is called memory
7. Conscious memory of factual information is called ___ memory.
  • A) state-dependent
  • B) flashbulb
  • C) explicit
  • D) implicit
8 the increased efficiency of neural circuitry that contributes to memory storage is known as
8. The increased efficiency of neural circuitry that contributes to memory storage is known as:
  • A) chunking.
  • B) the next-in-line effect.
  • C) automatic processing.
  • D) long-term potentiation.
9 iconic memory refers to
9. Iconic memory refers to:
  • A) the encoded meanings of words and events in short-term memory.
  • B) photographic, or picture-image, memory that lasts for only about a second.
  • C) the recall of words by their sounds.
  • D) the visually encoded images in long-term memory.
10 unlike implicit memories explicit memories are processed by the
10. Unlike implicit memories, explicit memories are processed by the:
  • A) hippocampus.
  • B) cerebellum.
  • C) hypothalamus.
  • D) motor cortex.
11 the association of sadness with negative life events contributes to
11. The association of sadness with negative life events contributes to:
  • A) the self-reference effect.
  • B) retroactive interference.
  • C) repression.
  • D) mood-congruent memory.
slide19

12. The smell of freshly baked bread awakened in Mr. Puckett vivid memories of is early childhood. The aroma apparently acted as a powerful:

  • A) sensory memory.
  • B) reconstructive signal.
  • C) retrieval cue.
  • D) implicit memory.
slide20
13. An eyewitness to a grocery store robbery is asked to identify the suspects in a police lineup. Which test of memory is being utilized?
  • A) recognition.
  • B) recall.
  • C) relearning.
  • D) reconstruction.
14 retrieval cues are most likely to facilitate a process known as
14. Retrieval cues are most likely to facilitate a process known as:
  • A) automatic processing.
  • B) priming.
  • C) chunking.
  • D) relearning.
15 fill in the blank test questions measure matching concepts with their definitions measures
15. Fill-in-the-blank test questions measure ___; matching concepts with their definitions measures ___.
  • A) recognition; relearning.
  • B) recall; recognition.
  • C) recall; relearning.
  • D) relearning; recall.
16 retroactive interference refers to the
16. Retroactive interference refers to the:
  • A) decay of physical memory traces.
  • B) disruptive effect of previously learned material on the recall of new information.
  • C) disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of previously learned material.
  • D) blocking of painful memories from conscious awareness.
17 an inability to recall the location of the number 0 on your calculator is most likely due to
17. An inability to recall the location of the number 0 on your calculator is most likely due to:
  • A) source amnesia.
  • B) proactive interference.
  • C) memory decay.
  • D) encoding failure.
slide25

18. When Jake applied for a driver’s license, he was embarrassed by a momentary inability to remember his address. Jake’s memory difficulty most likely resulted from a(n) _______.

  • A) rehearsal
  • B) storage
  • C) encoding
  • D) retrieval
19 motivated forgetting provides an example of forgetting caused by a failure in
19. Motivated forgetting provides an example of forgetting caused by a failure in:
  • A) automatic processing.
  • B) retrieval.
  • C) storage.
  • D) encoding.
20 we often alter our memories as we withdraw them from storage this best illustrates
20. We often alter our memories as we withdraw them from storage. This best illustrates:
  • A) memory construction.
  • B) the self-reference effect.
  • C) automatic processing.
  • D) priming.
21 memories of stressful and unpleasant life experiences are not likely to be
21. Memories of stressful and unpleasant life experiences are not likely to be:
  • A) encoded.
  • B) repressed.
  • C) stored.
  • D) retrieved.
slide29

22. Adult incest survivors who have trouble remembering incidences of childhood sexual abuse have often been led to believe that their memory difficulties are due to:

  • A) memory storage failure.
  • B) the misinformation effect.
  • C) memory encoding failure.
  • D) repression.
slide30

23. Incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event can result in the witness making mistakes on details when later asked to recall. This is called:

  • A) misinformation effect.
  • B) long-term potentiation.
  • C) flashbulb memory.
  • D) other-influenced confabulation.
slide31
24. Memory experts who express skepticism regarding reports of repressed and recovered memories emphasize that:
  • A) there is very little people can do to relieve the distress resulting from traumatic memories.
  • B) most extremely traumatic life experiences are never encoded into long-term memory.
  • C) therapeutic techniques such as guided imagery and hypnosis can easily encourage the construction of false memories.
  • D) people rarely recall memories of long-forgotten unpleasant events.
slide32

25. After repeatedly hearing false, detailed accusations that he had sexually abused his daughter, Mr. Busker began to mistakenly recollect that such events had actually occurred. This best illustrates the dangers of:

  • A) source amnesia.
  • B) proactive interference.
  • C) implicit memory.
  • D) mood-congruent memory.
slide34

Answers

Stop here, or continue as a review

1 the process of getting information into memory is called35
1. The process of getting information into memory is called:
  • A) priming.
  • B) chunking.
  • C) encoding.
  • D) storage.

351

2 encoding that occurs with no effort or a minimal level of conscious attention is known as36
2. Encoding that occurs with no effort or a minimal level of conscious attention is known as:
  • A) repression.
  • B) long-term potentiation.
  • C) automatic processing.
  • D) state-dependent memory.

353

3 the process by which information is encoded by its meaning is called37
3. The process by which information is encoded by its meaning is called:
  • A) long-term potentiation.
  • B) semantic encoding.
  • C) priming.
  • D) automatic processing.

356

4 the organization of information into meaningful units is called38
4. The organization of information into meaningful units is called:
  • A) automatic processing.
  • B) chunking.
  • C) the spacing effect.
  • D) the method of loci.

359

slide39

Timmy learns the sentence, “George eats old gray rats and paints houses yellow” to help him remember how to spell “geography.” He is using:

  • A) a mnemonic device.
  • B) the “peg-word” system.
  • C) the spacing effect.
  • D) the method of loci.

358

6 our immediate short term memory for new material is limited to roughly bits of information40
6. Our immediate short-term memory for new material is limited to roughly ___ bits of information.
  • A) 3
  • B) 7
  • C) 12
  • D) 20

362

7 conscious memory of factual information is called memory41
7. Conscious memory of factual information is called ___ memory.
  • A) state-dependent
  • B) flashbulb
  • C) explicit
  • D) implicit

367

8 the increased efficiency of neural circuitry that contributes to memory storage is known as42
8. The increased efficiency of neural circuitry that contributes to memory storage is known as:
  • A) chunking.
  • B) the next-in-line effect.
  • C) automatic processing.
  • D) long-term potentiation.

365

9 iconic memory refers to43
9. Iconic memory refers to:
  • A) the encoded meanings of words and events in short-term memory.
  • B) photographic, or picture-image, memory that lasts for only about a second.
  • C) the recall of words by their sounds.
  • D) the visually encoded images in long-term memory.

362

10 unlike implicit memories explicit memories are processed by the44
10. Unlike implicit memories, explicit memories are processed by the:
  • A) hippocampus.
  • B) cerebellum.
  • C) hypothalamus.
  • D) motor cortex.

368

11 the association of sadness with negative life events contributes to45
11. The association of sadness with negative life events contributes to:
  • A) the self-reference effect.
  • B) retroactive interference.
  • C) repression.
  • D) mood-congruent memory.

374

slide46

12. The smell of freshly baked bread awakened in Mr. Puckett vivid memories of is early childhood. The aroma apparently acted as a powerful:

  • A) sensory memory.
  • B) reconstructive signal.
  • C) retrieval cue.
  • D) implicit memory.

371

slide47
13. An eyewitness to a grocery store robbery is asked to identify the suspects in a police lineup. Which test of memory is being utilized?
  • A) recognition.
  • B) recall.
  • C) relearning.
  • D) reconstruction.

370

14 retrieval cues are most likely to facilitate a process known as48
14. Retrieval cues are most likely to facilitate a process known as:
  • A) automatic processing.
  • B) priming.
  • C) chunking.
  • D) relearning.

372

15 fill in the blank test questions measure matching concepts with their definitions measures49
15. Fill-in-the-blank test questions measure ___; matching concepts with their definitions measures ___.
  • A) recognition; relearning.
  • B) recall; recognition.
  • C) recall; relearning.
  • D) relearning; recall.

370

16 retroactive interference refers to the50
16. Retroactive interference refers to the:
  • A) decay of physical memory traces.
  • B) disruptive effect of previously learned material on the recall of new information.
  • C) disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of previously learned material.
  • D) blocking of painful memories from conscious awareness.

379

17 an inability to recall the location of the number 0 on your calculator is most likely due to51
17. An inability to recall the location of the number 0 on your calculator is most likely due to:
  • A) source amnesia.
  • B) proactive interference.
  • C) memory decay.
  • D) encoding failure.

376

slide52

18. When Jake applied for a driver’s license, he was embarrassed by a momentary inability to remember his address. Jake’s memory difficulty most likely resulted from a(n) _______.

  • A) rehearsal
  • B) storage
  • C) encoding
  • D) retrieval

378

19 motivated forgetting provides an example of forgetting caused by a failure in53
19. Motivated forgetting provides an example of forgetting caused by a failure in:
  • A) automatic processing.
  • B) retrieval.
  • C) storage.
  • D) encoding.

380

20 we often alter our memories as we withdraw them from storage this best illustrates54
20. We often alter our memories as we withdraw them from storage. This best illustrates:
  • A) memory construction.
  • B) the self-reference effect.
  • C) automatic processing.
  • D) priming.

382

21 memories of stressful and unpleasant life experiences are not likely to be55
21. Memories of stressful and unpleasant life experiences are not likely to be:
  • A) encoded.
  • B) repressed.
  • C) stored.
  • D) retrieved.

388

slide56

22. Adult incest survivors who have trouble remembering incidences of childhood sexual abuse have often been led to believe that their memory difficulties are due to:

  • A) memory storage failure.
  • B) the misinformation effect.
  • C) memory encoding failure.
  • D) repression.

387

slide57

23. Children in one study were periodically asked whether they remembered going to the circus. They later described in great detail their memory of going to the circus, although they were never there. This illustrates:

  • A) misinformation effect:
  • B) long-term potentiation.
  • C) flashbulb memory.
  • D) other-influenced confabulation.

383

slide58
24. Memory experts who express skepticism regarding reports of repressed and recovered memories emphasize that:
  • A) there is very little people can do to relieve the distress resulting from traumatic memories.
  • B) most extremely traumatic life experiences are never encoded into long-term memory.
  • C) therapeutic techniques such as guided imagery and hypnosis can easily encourage the construction of false memories.
  • D) people rarely recall memories of long-forgotten unpleasant events.

388

slide59

25. After repeatedly hearing false, detailed accusations that he had sexually abused his daughter, Mr. Busker began to mistakenly recollect that such events had actually occurred. This best illustrates the dangers of:

  • A) source amnesia.
  • B) proactive interference.
  • C) implicit memory.
  • D) mood-congruent memory.

384

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • Step Up Created by:
    • John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
  • Based on Psychology, Eighth Edition by
  • David Myers
  • Published by
  • Worth Publishers, 2006