Osmoregulation. Controlling the Internal Environment. terms. Hypertonic: exo-smosis Hypotonic: endosmosis These have led to structural adaptations and physiological adaptations in order to maintain the balance of water and solutes.
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Controlling the Internal Environment
The kidney is approximately 11–14 cm in length, 6 cm wide and 4 cm thick.
Between the renal pyramids are projections of cortex called renal columns (of Bertin).Nephrons, the urine-producing functional structures of the kidney, span the cortex and medulla.
ADH binds to principal cells in the collecting duct that translocateaquaporins to the membrane allowing water to leave the normally impermeable membrane and be reabsorbed into the body by the vasa recta, thus increasing the plasma volume of the body
Ultrafiltration (UF) is a variety of membrane filtration in which hydrostatic pressure forces a liquid against a semi permeable membrane. Suspended solidsand solutes of high molecular weight are retained, while water and low molecular weight solutes pass through the membrane.
In biological terms, ultra filtration occurs at the barrier between the blood and the filtrate in the renal corpuscle or Bowman's capsule in the kidneys. The Bowman's capsule contains a dense capillary network called the glomerulus. Blood flows into these capillaries through a wide afferent arteriole and leaves through a narrower efferent arteriole. The blood pressure inside these capillaries is high because
The renal artery contains blood at very high pressure which enters the glomerulus via the short afferent arteriole.
Glomerular pressure is about 75 millimeters of mercury (10 kPa). It is opposed by osmotic pressure(30 mmHg, 4.0 kPa) and hydrostatic pressure (20 mmHg, 2.7 kPa) of solutes present in capsular space. This difference in pressure is called effective pressure(25 mmHg)(3.3 kPa).
It takes the patient’s blood and ‘ cleans’ it.
Wastes diffuse out of the blood across a partially permeable membrane into a fluid that is constantly renewed. In this way urea is removed from the blood