osmoregulation n.
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Osmoregulation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Osmoregulation

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  1. Osmoregulation • The management of body’s water content and solute composition • Maintains body cells’ cytoplasm composition • Usually accomplished by managing interstitial fluid • Animals with closed circulatory system accomplished by managing blood

  2. Transport Epithelium • Layer of specialized cells that regulate solute movement • Move specific solutes in controlled amounts in particular directions • In most animals arranged in network of tubes with large surface area! • Dual function: maintain water balance and secrete wastes • Example in bird salt gland

  3. Nitrogen Waste from Protein Metabolism • Ammonia- water soluble but toxic. Aquatic animals often secrete ammonia • Urea- combines ammonia with CO2, low toxicity, less water needed, but costs energy to make • Uric Acid- insoluble in water, secreted as a paste, requires less water, costs more energy to make • Type of waste produced depends on habitat and evolution Shelled Eggs

  4. Osmoregulators vs. Osomoconformers • Osmoconformer – body is isotonic to surroundings (only works for marine organisms in a stable environment) • Osmoregulator – controls internal osmolarity (can live in environments osmoconfomers can’t) • Osmoregulation has an energy cost • Expend energy to maintain gradients that allow water to move in or out

  5. Water Balance at Sea • Most marine invertebrates and hagfish are osmoconformers • Marine vertebrate osmoregulators • In general marine vertebrates are hypoosmotic to seawater, and constantly loose water • Drink lots of water, and excrete excess salts, little urine produced

  6. Water Balance in Fresh Water • In general freshwater organisms are hyperosmotic to surroundings and constantly gain water and lose salts • Freshwater fish excrete a lot of dilute urine to get rid of excess water

  7. Water Balance on Land • Water loss greatest threat to terrestrial plants and animals • Humans die when lose 12% of body water • Despite adaptations, water still lost in feces, urine, moist surfaces of gas exchange • Combated by drinking, and metabolic water

  8. Basic Model of Excretory Systems

  9. Planarian - Protonephridia

  10. Annelid - Metanephridia

  11. Terrestrial Arthropod – Malpighian Tube

  12. Vertebrate Excretory System