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Osmoregulation. Maintaining homeostasis in solute concentrations. Water is better. Osmoregulation. VIDEO!!!. Osmoregulation. At a cellular level the balance of water supply and demand is critical. Why is it so important?. Osmoregulation.

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osmoregulation

Osmoregulation

Maintaining homeostasis in solute concentrations

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Osmoregulation
  • At a cellular level the balance of water supply and demand is critical.
  • Why is it so important?
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Osmoregulation
  • Water dissolves solutes and is the medium in which everything happens
  • Chemical reactions, transport of nutrients, gases and wastes.
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Osmoregulation
  • It is crucial that the solute concentration of the blood remains at a stable level.
  • The solute concentration of the blood affects the diffusion of water across capillary walls and across cell membranes.
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Osmoregulation
  • For Example:

- A relatively low concentration of water in the blood and tissue fluid can affect the functioning of cells.

- This can be caused by excessive fluid loss or increased salt concentration.

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Osmoregulation
  • Mark Dorrity Story
osmosis
Osmosis
  • Define Osmosis

The movement of water across a semi permeable membrane from a place of low solute concentration to a place of high solute concentration

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Osmoregulation
  • Where do you think these changes in concentration in the blood will be detected?

HYPOTHALAMUS

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Osmoregulation
  • If the hypothalamus detects that the concentration in the blood is too high. It releases a hormone that stimulates the pituitary gland to release ADH
  • ADH in turn stimulates the kidney to absorb more water.
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Osmoregulation
  • The Loop of Henle is crucial for this process
  • It can reabsorb more water if needed and be used to excrete salts.
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Osmoregulation
  • A thirst response is also initiated which forces animals to seek water.
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Osmoregulation
  • What are some ways in which water can be lost from the body?
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Osmoregulation
  • Water Loss
  • Exhaling
  • Sweating
  • Urinating
  • Faeces
  • Tear Ducts
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Osmoregulation
  • Vertebrates have evolved effective ways in which to maintain the balance of water and solutes
  • Can you think of any examples?
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Osmoregulation
  • Thirst response: Seeking water
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Osmoregulation
  • Waterproof (impermeable) outer layer [aka – integument]: Reduce water loss – e.g. scales on reptiles, hair of mammals, feathers, keratin in skin, skin, hard exoskeleton.
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Osmoregulation
  • Reabsorption: Some animals reabsorb water from their faeces.
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Osmoregulation
  • Burrowing: The temperature is cooler underground so less water is lost. Burrows also have high humidity therefore water loss is reduced.
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Osmoregulation
  • Some animals stay underground fro extended periods of time while it is extremely dry.
  • For example: the Cyclorana burrows deep and covers itself in a cocoon. The cocoon creates humidity.
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Osmoregulation
  • Changing waste products: Some animals excrete nitrogen in different ways to conserve water.
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Osmoregulation
  • Concentrating urine: By concentrating their urine animals can conserve water (e.g. Notomys).
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Osmoregulation
  • Gets all its water from cellular respiration and conserves water by concentrating its urine.
  • 1 gram of carbohydrates supplies 0.56 grams of water.
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Osmoregulation
  • Camels do a similar thing however they metabolise the fat in their hump to produce water.
  • High tolerance to low water conditions.
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Osmoregulation
  • What do you do if you are surrounded by water?
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Osmoregulation
  • Some organisms don’t have to worry.
  • These animals, mainly invertebrates, have the same internal solute concentration as their external environment.
  • Meaning they are isotonic with the sea water.
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Osmoregulation
  • These animals are referred to as osmoconformers
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Osmoregulation
  • Other animals are not so lucky.
  • Marine vertebrates have internal environments that are hypotonic to their surrounding environment.
  • Their body fluids are less concentrated than the surrounding sea water.
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Osmoregulation
  • These animals must find ways in which to stabilise their internal environments.
  • These animals are referred to as osmoregulators
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Osmoregulation
  • Water is lost by osmosis to the surrounding environment.
  • To replace this water marine fish drink lots of sea water. However this also means they take in salts.
  • They use secretory cells in the gills to get rid of excess salts.
  • Production of concentrated urine also helps
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Osmoregulation
  • Fish in freshwater environments have an internal environment that is hypertonic to their surroundings
  • Their internal environment is more concentrated than their surroundings
  • This mean water continually moves in to their body.
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Osmoregulation
  • Freshwater fish produce large amounts of dilute urine.
  • Actively absorb salts via cells in their gills
  • Do not drink much water
review
REVIEW
  • Describe the difference between osmoregulators and osmoconformers
  • Describe the different methods of maintaining stable solute concentrations used by freshwater and saltwater fish.
  • List and describe the different adaptations animals use to conserve water.
  • Describe why the kidney is so important in osmoregulation