infancy 0 3 years l.
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INFANCY (0-3 YEARS)
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  1. INFANCY (0-3 YEARS)

  2. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT • Babies develop very rapidly during the first three years of life. They are born with a number of physical reflexes. • A REFLEX IS AN AUTOMATIC UNCONTROBALLE RESPONSE TO A PHYSICAL CHANGE (E.G MOVING YOUR HAND AWAY FROM A HOT PLATE).

  3. ROOTING REFLEX • THE BABY TURNS IT’S HEAD IN THE DIRECTION OF THE TOUCH, ENABLING IT TO FIND THE NIPPLE OF IT’S MOTHER’S BREAST TO OBTAIN FOOD.

  4. MORO REFLEX • When startled, a baby throws out is arms and legs, then pulls them back with fingers curved.

  5. GRASP REFLEX • A BABY WILL GRASP AN OBJECT PLACED IN THE HAND.

  6. WALKING REFLEX • WHEN A BABY IS HELD WITH IT’S FEET TOUCHING THE GROUND ITS LEGS WILL MAKE FORWARD MOVEMENTS, AS IF WALKING.

  7. Task • Match the correct reflex to the correct description. • WALKING REFLEX • GRASP REFLEX • MORO REFLEX • ROOTING REFLEX

  8. During the first three years babies learn to control their muscles and movements. The control of large muscles, such as in the arms and legs, is called GROSS MOTOR SKILLS. • The control of smaller muscles and movements, such as those in the fingers, is called FINE MOTOR SKILLS.

  9. Task

  10. INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT • The most important intellectual development a child makes is the ability to use and understand language. Babies understand simple words such as ‘bye-bye’ at 6-9 months. • At two years old, most children will start using two word statements ‘ZOE SLEEP’. • Intellectual development is helped by play. Children can look at books to help stimulate them and increase their ability to recognise objects.

  11. SOLITARY PLAY • Normally occurs during infancy, infants will play by themselves.

  12. PARALLEL PLAY • Is when chidlren play next t each other, but not together. For example, one child may play with building blocks and another with a doll.

  13. CO-OPERATIVE PLAY • IS WHEN CHIDLREN PLAY TOGETHER, FOR EXAMPLE A GAME OF TAG.

  14. PRETEND PLAY • A TYPE OF PLAY THAT ALLOWS CHILDREN TO LEARN ABOUT THEIR WORLD. FOR EXAMPLE, PLAYING HOUSE.

  15. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • Occurs satisfactorily if a secure attachment relationship has been made in the first years of life. • As the child gets a little older, he or she will begin to be interested in other children. By the age of two her or she will play alone with other children, this is called PARALLEL PLAY. • A child is about 4 before he or she can play properly with another child. This is called CO-OPERATIVE PLAY.

  16. BONDING • During the first 18 months of life, infants develop an emotional bond with their carers. This boding process ties the infant emotionally to familiar carers. • USE THE INTERNET AND RESEARCH THE WORK OF JEAN PIAGET AND BANDURA. • PRESENT YOUR FINDINGS IN A WRITTEN REPORT. You must make sure you include the following: name of theorist, outline of work, any key terms.

  17. CHECK YOUR KNOWLEDGE! Q1) What are reflexes?. Q2) Describe the reflexes of a new born baby. Q3) Describe and give 3 examples of a fine motor skill. Q4) Describe and give three examples of a gross motor skill. Q5) What is parallel play?. Q6) What is cooperative play?.