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Infant & Toddler Development ( 0-3 years). “ We reach backward to our parents and forward to our children and through their children to a future we will never see, but about which we need to care. Carl Jung. If I could have watched you grow As a magical mother might.

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Infant & Toddler Development ( 0-3 years)

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    1. Infant & Toddler Development ( 0-3 years)

    2. “ We reach backward to our parents and forward to our children and through their children to a future we will never see, but about which we need to care. • Carl Jung

    3. If I could have watched you growAs a magical mother might. If I could have seen through my magical transparent belly, There would have been such ripening within… Anne Sexton, My Little Girl, My String Bean

    4. Pregnancy • Physical care • intrauterine development • prenatal environmental influences • exercise and nutrition • Emotional Care • Stress and Anxiety • Support System • Educational Care • approaches to childbirth • medical interventions

    5. Prenatal Development 38 weeks of pregnancy 3 general periods of development 1- the period of the zygote 2- the period of the embryo 3- the period of the fetus

    6. Period of the Zygote (fert.-2wks) Zygote multiplies and travels through fallopian tube to the uterus where it will attach to the uterine lining at about the 7-10th day after fertilization.Implantation occurs and now the mother’s blood begins to nourish the organism. It is now called the embryo

    7. Period of the Embryo-2wks-2mos. 4t

    8. Period of the Fetus (2mos.-birth) 12th week -3 inches long and weighs 1 ounce can move arms, legs, fingers, and toes can form a fist, can curl toes, fingerprints are present can smile, frown, suck its thumb and swallow sex is distinguishable can urinate eyelids open and close fingernails/toenails appear 12th week is the end of the 1st Trimester

    9. 2nd Trimester 16 weeks - 5 1/2 inches long and 4 ounces in weight movements can be felt by mother end of 2nd trimester- all neurons are now in place glial cells (support and feed neurons) are still growing and will do so until after birth fetuses will try to shield their eyes with their hands from the light of a surgical fetoscopy procedure

    10. 3rd Trimester 22 -26 weeks - Age of Viability- fetus has a chance of survival if born now cerebral cortex enlarges 24 wks - fetus can feel pain 28 wks - awake 11% of the time - blink eyes-reaction to sounds - sweet and bitter 32 wks - hearing is well integrated - can learn to show preference for particular sounds at birth

    11. Prenatal Environmental Influences Teratogens-“Teras” greek word “monstrosity”

    12. Teratogens (cont.) Alcohol- Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)occurs to mother’s who drink heavily moderate drinkers can have some effects facial deformities, defective limbs and heart below average intelligence, MR Smoking higher pre-term births and lower birth weights fetal and neonatal deaths higher infants who are awake more on a consistent basis respiratory problems and sudden infant death syndrome are more common among the offspring of mothers who smoke during pregnancy (2-3 x more likely than non-smokers)

    13. Maternal Factors Exercise - regular & moderate can lead to increased birth weight - regular & vigorous can lead to lower birth weight Nutrition - operates the same as teratogens-sensitive period - famine during 1st trimester- miscarriages & physical defects beyond 1st trimester- survived but underweight & small heads damage to CNS- fewer brain cells and lower brain weight, especially if during the last trimester when the brain is growing rapidly in size distort the pancreas, liver, kidney and blood vessels and increase the risk heart disease and diabetes in adulthood

    14. Emotional Care Stress and Anxiety- intense fears, anxieties produce physiological changes respiration and glandular secretions- adrenaline secretions restricts blood flow to the uterus and oxygen to baby one study showed anxiety in pregnancy related to newborn irritability, hyperactivity, eating and sleeping problems Support System- risks are greatly reduced if mother has husband, family or friends to give emotional support reassuring mother of fetal well-being reduced anxiety and babies were less irritable and scored hi on neonatal tests

    15. Sensory Richness of Prenatal Life “Conception and pregnancy constitute the 1st chapter of our personal history… even in the prenatal environment the developing human being is dynamic and interacting” Dr. Silvana Quattrochi Montanaro

    16. Children sweeten labors. Francis Bacon, Essays, 1625

    17. Approaches to Childbirth • hi tech hospital delivery • natural childbirth in the hospital • natural childbirth in a Midwife Center • natural childbirth in the home

    18. Birth Apgar Scale: 2x test for health status of baby Complications: oxygen deprivation- 1-22% of babies with Cerebral Palsy (CP)have experienced “anoxia” (inadequate oxygen supply). CP results from brain damage and produces difficulties in muscle coordination, “clumsy walk”, uncontrolled movements, and unclear speech. The disorder can range from mild tremors to severe crippling and mental retardation. 2-Respiratory Distress Syndrome- often occurs to infants born more than 6 wks early, lungs are poorly developed, air sacs collapse and lack of oxygen causes permanent brain damage

    19. Birth Complications: pre-term and low birth weight babies < 35 weeks and weight < 51/2 lbs birth weight often predicts survival and development • frequent illness, inattention, over-activity, low intelligence test scores, deficits in motor coordination and school learning sometimes extend into the childhood years • lower the weight, the greater the risk for problems Small for Date babies- greater risk because probably experienced poor nutrition/dysfunctional placenta

    20. Interventions- for pre-term babies • coaching in recognizing and responding to baby’s needs babies gained steadily in mental performance to match full-term babies • “kangaroo care” holding infant close to chest= promotes oxygenation of body, temperature regulation, better feeding and more alertness- parents gain confidence about being able to care for their preterm baby • medical, parent training, cognitively stimulating day care normal range at 3 in intelligence, psychological adjustment and growth • But will lose ground by 5 unless there is high quality intervention (cognitively stimulating day care) • Moderate to mild birth trauma –did well if in stable family environment-those exposed to poverty, family disorganization and mental illness did not do well