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Parasitology. Metazoans and Exoparasites Part II. Meatazoans. Three Classes Trematodes (flukes-flat worms) Cestodes (tape worms) Nematodes (round worms). Metazoans. Major Stages of Life Cycle Ova Adult (Mature Parasite). Metazoans. Monecious - having male and

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parasitology

Parasitology

Metazoans and Exoparasites

Part II

meatazoans
Meatazoans

Three Classes

Trematodes (flukes-flat worms)

Cestodes (tape worms)

Nematodes (round worms)

metazoans
Metazoans

Major Stages of Life Cycle

Ova

Adult (Mature Parasite)

metazoans1
Metazoans

Monecious - having male and

female reproductive organs in

the same animal.

Diecious - sexually distinct;

denoting species in which

male and female genitals do

not occur in the same

individual

trematoda
Trematoda

Most trematodes have complex life

cycles, with larval stages parasitizing one or

more species that are different from host of

adults.

Larval stages of some medically important

species include miracidium, redia, cercaria,

and metacercaria.

Most trematodes are endoparasites.

They include several parasites that have an

enormous impact on human populations, such

as human liver flukes and the blood flukes.

trematoda1
Trematoda

Clonorchius sinesis

causes hepatic portal

disease, very painful,

affects liver

trematoda2
Trematoda

Schisotosoma mansoni

blood flukes that targets

organs that are fed by

blood.

trematoda3
Trematoda

Fasciola hepatica,

also known as the common liver

fluke or sheep liver fluke, is a

Parasitic flatworm of the class

Trematoda, phylum

Platyhelminthes that infects liver

of various mammals, including

humans.

cestoda
Cestoda

Cestoda is a class of parasitic

flatworms, commonly called

Tapeworms.

Tapeworms live in the digestive

tract of vertebrates as adults and

often in the bodies of various

animals as juveniles.

cestoda1
Cestoda

Taenia saginata

The beef tapeworm can grow

up to 40 feet long (12 m);

other species may grow to

over 100 feet (30 m).

cestoda2
Cestoda

Taenia solium

This infection is caused by

ingestion of eggs shed in the

feces of a human tapeworm

carrier.

Pigs and humans become

infected by ingesting eggs or

gravid proglottids.

Humans are infected either by

ingestion of food contaminated

with feces containing eggs, or by

autoinfection

cestoda3
Cestoda

Echinococcus granulosus

Hydatid worm parasitizes the

small intestine of canids as an

adult, but which has important

intermediate hosts such as

livestock and humans, where it

causes hydatid disease.

Hydatid disease is treated with

surgery, taking special care to leave

the cyst intact so new cysts do not

Form.

nematoda round worms
Nematoda (Round Worms)

Nematoda , phylum consisting of

about 12,000 known species,

and many more predicted species

of worms (commonly known as

roundworms or threadworms).

Nematodes live in the soil and

other terrestrial habitats as well

as in freshwater and marine

environments.

Many are damaging parasites of

plants and animals, including

humans.

nematoda round worms1
Nematoda (Round Worms)

Ascaris lumbricoides –

fairly long, get together in

balls and start breeding

nematod round worm
Nematod (Round Worm)

Necator americanus

hook worm. Likes to

penetrate in soft skin

between toes then migrates

from there to other site in

the body.

nematod round worm1
Nematod (Round Worm)

Trichinella spiralis

Trichinellosis, also called

trichinosis, is caused by

eating raw or undercooked

meat of animals infected with

the larvae.

Infection occurs commonly in

certain wild carnivorous

(meat-eating) animals but

may also occur in domestic

pigs.

nematod round worm2
Nematod (Round Worm)

Enterobius vermicularis

Pin worms

Lays eggs on the anus.

Causes a very itchy bum and

prolapsed rectum.

exoparasites
Exoparasites

These don’t really cause

Infection.

They are responsible for

infestations.

Insecta (6 legs) – fleas,

Lice

Arachnidia (8 legs) – ticks,

mites

exoparasites body louse
Exoparasites Body Louse

Pediculus humanus

Lice are six-legged blood-sucking

parasitic insects that live near the

surface of the skin, often clinging to

the shafts of human hair.

They can travel quickly, up to 10

inches per minute, which explains

why they are so contagious.

Infestation with lice is called

“pediculosis.” In the U.S., head lice

and pubic (crab) lice are the most common forms of pediculosis.

pediculus humanus
Pediculushumanus

Direct and prolonged head-to-head

contact is the usual mode of head lice

transmission; as such, lice are typically

spread between people who know each

Other

Sharing of inanimate objects that come in

contact with the hair or scalp, such as hats,

scarves, or hairbrushes, may also cause

the spread of head lice, though this is less

Common.

Contrary to popular belief, lice cannot

jump from one head to another, and they

cannot survive for long off of the human

Body.

exoparasites crab louse
Exoparasites Crab Louse

Pthirus pubis

Pubic lice (or crab lice) are usually

transmitted sexually and are among

the most contagious of STDs.

Condoms do not prevent the spread

of pubic lice.

Nonsexual transmission of public lice

is also possible.

exoparasites body louse comparison to crab louse
ExoparasitesBody Louse comparison to Crab Louse

Body louse claw are adapted for round hair

common with body and head hair.

Crab louse claw is adapted for oval shaped

hair common with pubic hair and eye

lashes.

exoparasites bed bugs
Exoparasites (Bed Bugs)

Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius , are

blood feeding parasites of humans,

chickens, bats and occasionally

domesticated animals (Usinger

1966).

Bed bugs are suspected carriers of

leprosy, oriental sore, Q-fever, and

brucellosis (Krueger 2000) but have

never been implicated in the spread

of disease to humans (Dolling 1991).

exoparasites ticks
Exoparasites Ticks

Ticks are blood-feeding

parasites that are often found in

tall grass and shrubs where they

will wait to attach to a passing

host.

A tick will attach itself to its host

by inserting its chelicerae

(cutting mandibles) and hypostome

(feeding tube) into the skin.

The hypostome is covered with

recurved teeth and serves as an anchor.

exoparasite scabies
Exoparasite Scabies

Scabies is a contagious

ectoparasite skin infestation

characterized by superficial

burrows and intense pruritus

(itching).

It is caused by the mite Sarcoptes

scabiei. The word scabies itself is

derived from the Latin word for

"scratch" (scabere).

exoparasites scabies
Exoparasites Scabies

Scabies is highly contagious and can

be spread by scratching, picking up

the mites under the fingernails and

simply touching another person's

skin.

They can also be spread onto other

objects like keyboards, toilets,

clothing, towels, bedding, furniture,

and anything else that the mite may

be rubbed off onto, especially if a

person is heavily infested.

The parasite can survive up to 14

days away from a host, but often do

not survive longer than two or three

days away from human skin.[

exoparasites1
Exoparasites

Insects and arachnids are

much more important as

vectors that as parasites.

Mosquitoes transmit malaria

Ticks transmit Lyme’s disease

Fleas transmit plague