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Parasitology

Parasitology

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Parasitology

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  1. Parasitology Dr. N. Matthew Ellinwood, D.V.M., Ph.D. March 6, 2014 Iowa State University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences

  2. Bloody Feces • What tests should be run? • Fecal float • Fecal cytology (Fix and Stain, dead • Direct fecal smear (Fresh, alive) • Fecal antigen tests (more sensitive, more expensive than float)

  3. Antigens • Any molecule that sometimes stimulates an immune response • Usually proteins or polysaccharides • Test for by using antibodies (in blood) http://www.poultry-health.com/library/serodiss/elisa13.jpg

  4. Blood • Composed of plasma and cellular components • Plasma - liquid portion of blood • Serum - blood plasma with clotting factors removed • Serology

  5. Antibody • Most look like Y • Binds to antigen on one of two arms that are specific to antigen • Can have protein conjugate • Enzymes bind substrates • Horseradish peroxidase • Colorometric technique

  6. Antigen Tests • Antigens detected by antibody based technique • Use commercial antibody • ELISA test • Possible organisms to identify: • Giardia • Parvovirus

  7. Cytology • Make thin layer of feces on glass slide with saline • Want bacteria to be completely separate • Heat fixation • Can use lighter • Aid in fixing sample to slide • Aid in uptake of stain

  8. Cytology - Diff Quick • Alcohol • Basophilic stain (high pH - blue portion) • Eosinophilic stain • Use high magnification - oil for 100x

  9. Clostridial Enteritis • Diarrhea • Stains at one end

  10. Spore Forming Bacteria http://srs.dl.ac.uk/Annual_Reports/AnRep01_02/anthrax-bacteria.jpg • Anthrax • Botulism Anthrax http://www.foodhaccp.com/memberonly/0829.jpg

  11. Sporulation • “Happy dog” diarrhea (unlike parvo) • Treat with antibiotics

  12. Campylobacter • 1-2 in microscope is normal • 5-10 indicates disease

  13. Direct Fecal Smear • Thicker than cytology • Smear on slide, add water or saline, and use coverslip • Giardia • Coccidia http://www.infectiousdiseasenews.com/200709/eistories2.jpg

  14. Fecal Float • Feces in tube and mixed with solution • Place coverslip on top • Solution needs to be more dense than eggs • Saline - isotonic, not dense enough • Zinc sulfate - good, dense salt solution • Will effectively float organisms • Take coverslip off and put on slide

  15. Centrifuged Float • Similar to fecal float but centrifuged • More accurate • Can be used efficiently with a lower number of eggs http://www.windyhollowvet.com/images/roundworm.gif http://pethealth.petwellbeing.com/w/images/3/3e/Dog_Whipworm_egg.JPG

  16. Toxascaris leonina • Common name: Ascarid/roundworm • Size of adult: 6-17 cm in SI • Host: Dogs & Cats http://www.thepetcenter.com/exa/ascarids_3.jpg http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.uga.edu/~lam/kids/worms/Pics/round.jpg http://www.beaglesunlimited.com/Photos/CanineRoundworms.jpg

  17. Trichuris vulpis • Common name: Whipworm • Size of adult: 3-8 cm in cecum • Host: Dogs http://www.angelhealingcenter.com/Paras12.gif cal.vet.upenn.edu/paralab/images/labimage/lab4/4_18.gif&imgrefurl http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.path.cam.ac.uk/~schisto/Pic

  18. Ancylostoma caninum • Common name: Southern Hookworm • Size of adult: 8-16 mm in SI • Host: Dogs http://www.animalhealth.bayer.ca/content/pictures/Ancylostoma%20Caninum.jpg http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/zoolab/Table_of_Contents/Lab-4b/Hookworm_1/Lab_4b-21a.jpg

  19. Giardia canis • Common name: None • Flagellated protozoa • Size of organism: 10 x 18 µm • Hosts: Dogs, cats, humans, etc http://www.nih.go.jp/niid/para/atlas/images/giardia-trph.jpg

  20. Giardia in Motion • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j1sOJUw5Eo0 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-yIHkq9R5_c&feature=endscreen&NR=1

  21. Coccidia Quick Facts • Causes: • Diarrhea • Hemorrhagic enteritis • Poor growth • Occurs during very stressful events (ie weening)

  22. Parasites • Lab today will be examining fecal slides and identifying which parasites are present • You will • Make a fecal cytology • Sparse stained fecal prep (Campylobacter and Clostridia like organisms • Make a fresh prep • This would allow you to see motile Giardia • Make a fecal float • This will allow you to see ova and cysts