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PARASITOLOGY

PARASITOLOGY

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PARASITOLOGY

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  1. PARASITOLOGY • PROTOZOAN • METAZOAN • HOST-PARASITE RELATIONSHIPS

  2. PARASITOLOGY • Parasites as vectors for disease • PARASITES as portals of entry

  3. HEAVY INFESTATIONS • SUBLETHAL • LETHAL • TOXICITY FROM PARASITES

  4. PROTOZOANS • SINGLE CELLED • Eukaryotic organisms • Amoeba • Paramoeba permaquidensis • FLAGELLATED – • Ichthyobodo (Costia) • Cryptobia • Hexamita

  5. PHYLUM CILIOPHORA • CILIATED 2 + NUCLEI • Epistylis, Trichodina, Ichthyophthirius

  6. PHYLUM MICROSPORA • THICK WALLED SPORES • LOMA - CYSTS IN GILLS

  7. PHYLUM MYXOZOA

  8. MYXOBOLUS (MYXOSOMA) CEREBRALIS • WHIRLING DISEASEFIRST RECORDED IN RBT FROM GERMANY - 1903USA IN FROZEN FISH 1956 • ORIGIN MAY HAVE BEEN NON- PATHOGENIC PARASITE OF NATIVE SALMONIDS CENTRAL EUROPE AND NORTHERN ASIA BROWN TROUT AND ATL SALMON

  9. M. CEREBRALIS • TROPHOZOITES DEVELOP IN CARTILAGE

  10. M. CEREBRALIS

  11. ANNELID WORMTUBIFEX TUBIFEX • INTERMEDIATE HOST STAGE • SEPARATE TAXONOMY • TRIACTINOMYXON

  12. VECTORS

  13. CONTROL/PREVENTION • CONCRETE RACEWAYS • IMMUNITY??? • MANAGEMENT OF WILD STOCKSMONTANA, COLORADO • IDAHO - MISSING FISH ?

  14. REGULATIONS • FISH DISEASE EMERGENCY MEETING COLORADO MEETING 1988 • DELISTING FROM “TITLE 50”

  15. CERATOMYXA SHASTA • SHASTA COUNTY 1948 • Multicellular trophozoites • Mature spores • TRANSMISSION • Water borne, seasonal

  16. C. shasta • SALINITY • Symptoms

  17. C. shasta • Intestinal infection • Kidney associated

  18. Detection and Control • DIAGNOSIS (confirmation) • CONTROL

  19. PKD/PKX • Proliferative kidney disease • Symptoms

  20. METAZOAN PARASITES • PLATYHELMINTHES - FLAT WORMS • CESTODA - TAPEWORMS • TREMATODES - DIVERSE

  21. CESTODES • ADULTS USUALLY IN INTESTINAL TRACK VERTEBRATES • HERMAPHRODITIC • REPRODUCTION

  22. EXAMPLES OF LIFE CYCLES • Proteocephalid cestodes (Taenia) • Two fishes 1° host (LMB) and 1st intermediate host copepod, 2nd intermediate host is forage fish • Ligula intestinalis, described in 1758 • Adult form in piscivorous birds, eggs released to copepods (first intermediate host), to fish species (second intermediate host)

  23. TREMETODES • MONOGENEA • SPECIES SPECIFIC (some) • ANCHOR = PROHAPTOR, OPISHAPTOR • HERMAPHODITIC

  24. DIGENEA - FLUKES • COMPLEX LIFE CYCLES • -

  25. OTHER FLUKES • SANGUINICOLA

  26. ACANTHOCEPHALA • All require invertebrate host, usually arthropod (intermediate host) • Fish is final host

  27. PHYLUM NEMATODA • MOST REQUIRE INTERMEDIATE HOST

  28. Phylum ANNELIDA - Hirudinea • Leeches feed on worms, insect larvae, snails, and all vertebrates including amphibians • Bisexual • Leeches attacking fishes are not host specific • LEECHES (QUESTION IHNV?)

  29. PHYLUM ARTHROPODA • CLASS CRUSTACEA • sub class COPEPODS - SALMINCOLA - LERNAEA • BRANCHIURA - SEA LICE

  30. PHYLUM MOLLUSCA • FW CLAMS • GLOCHIDIA • Ecology of FW Clams/ Distribution of Molluscs ESA issues - Dams Obstruct Fish Passage